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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 205-211

A review on classical Vajikarana formulations of Shweta Musali

Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved College, Hospital, and Research Centre, Salod, Wardha, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission05-Jan-2020
Date of Decision17-Feb-2020
Date of Acceptance12-Mar-2020
Date of Web Publication14-Apr-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Mujahid B Khan
Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved College, Hospital, and Research Centre, Salod, Wardha 442001, Maharashtra.
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/JISM.JISM_67_19

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Vajikarana (aphrodisiac therapy) mainly deals with the promotion of sexual health, healthy progeny, and treatment of male sexual disorders such as premature ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. The formulations described in Ayurveda generally contain ingredients of herbal, herbo-mineral, metal, or animal in origin. Musali or Shweta (White) Musali is a potent herbal drug primarily utilized for Vajikaran therapy and indicated in the management of male infertility. Until date, no published information is presented in compiled form on the classical formulations of Musali with their dose and indications. Therefore, in this study, an attempt has been made to compile different formulations of Musali indicated for Vajikarana therapy. This study aims to gather information on various formulations of Musali primarily utilized for Vajikarana therapy. Critical review of various formulations of Shweta Musali is compiled from seven Ayurvedic texts, and the therapeutic efficacy of Musali is discussed on the basis of available data. Vajikarana formulations of Musali were discovered after Samhita period. In the present review, 51 formulations of Shweta Musali are found, which are mainly indicated for Vajikarana. In the formulations of Musali, ingredients such as Godugdha (cow’s milk), Goghrita (cows clarified butter), Khanda sharkara (sugar), Madhu (honey), Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L.), Shatavari (Asperagus racemosus Wild.), Vidarikanda (Pueraria tuberosa), Abhrak, Bhasma (calcined mica), and Rasasindoor (red oxide of mercury) augment the Vajikarana potential of Musali and also help to prevent other complications. On the basis of the reviewed research, it is concluded that Musali-containing formulations claimed significant aphrodisiac and spermatogenic properties, and present review will be helpful for research and pharmaceutical standardization purpose of Vajikarana formulations of Shweta Musali.

Keywords: Aphrodisia, formulations, infertility, Musali, Vajikarana

How to cite this article:
Khan MB, Rathi BJ, Rajput D, Wanjari A. A review on classical Vajikarana formulations of Shweta Musali. J Indian Sys Medicine 2019;7:205-11

How to cite this URL:
Khan MB, Rathi BJ, Rajput D, Wanjari A. A review on classical Vajikarana formulations of Shweta Musali. J Indian Sys Medicine [serial online] 2019 [cited 2023 Mar 21];7:205-11. Available from: https://www.joinsysmed.com/text.asp?2019/7/4/205/282384

  Introduction Top

The science of life called Ayurveda deals with every facet of life, and Vajikarana is one of its eight components being practiced ever since time immemorial.[1]Vajikarana deals with the strengthening and preservation of sexual competency of a healthy man and conception of healthy offspring along with management of disturbed spermatogenesis, defective semen, and seminal-related disorders in man. It improves the physical, psychological, and social health as well as promotes the sexual potential and performance an individual.[2] Infertility is a global problem, affecting approximately 15% of couples of reproductive age. It is estimated that globally, 60–80 million couples endure from infertility every year out of which approximately 15–20 million are in India alone. As per World Health Organization study on more than 8500 couples, the male factor contributes to infertility as much as 51.2%. Nearly 27.5 million couples actively trying to conceive suffer from infertility in India.[3],[4],[5]Vajikarana therapy not only rejuvenates the male reproductive system and slows down the aging progression but also increases quality and quantity of sperms, thus increasing sperm motility and count.[6] Herbal medicines have been used since the beginning of civilization to sustain health and treat disease. Shweta Musali is a herb that is used for its benefits in male sexual and general health traditionally. It belong to family Liliaceae and scientifically known as Chlorophytum borivilianum Linn. Some other botanical equivalents of SafedMusali are Chlorophytum tuberosum (Roxb.) Baker, Asparagus adscendens (Roxb.), and Chlorophytum arundinaceum Baker. It is an annual basil of 1.5 feet height with tuberous root system, suberect lanceolate leaves, and erect dense flowered racemoses of white color. It is originally grown up in broad forests of India and normally propagated in filthy loamy soil of northern plains of the Western Himalaya. It is also found in Kashmir, Nepal, Tibetan region, and Baluchistan at higher altitudes. There are around 300 species scattered throughout the tropical and subtropical areas of the world.[7],[8]

The drug “Musali” is mentioned in different classical text of Ayurveda as “Sukrala Dravya” (substance that enhance semen or sperms), spermatogenic drug) by Sharangadhara,[9] and in Rajanighantu it is referred as a Vrishyadravya (Aphrodisiac drug). It is also called as Khalini, Talamuli, Talapatrika, Suvaha, and Vrishyakanda.[10] It is one of the most utilized drug for Vajikarana therapy. It is a rich source of over 25 alkaloids, vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, proteins, steroid and polysaccharides, saponins, chlorophytoside-I, and furostanolic.[11],[12] It is considered as a “Divya Aushad” or “Rasayana”(Rejuvenate therapy) or sex vitalizer or wonder drug for powerful sex and general debility.[13] In Ayurveda, the plant is used as aphrodisiac agent in the treatment of male impotency, lack of libido, and oligospermia, and many formulations is composed of the Kanda (tubers) of the plant for the purpose of aphrodisiac and spermatogenesis property.[10] Its dried tubers are also used as a curative for prenatal and postnatal illness, diabetes, arthritis, restorative for immunity improvement, and so on.[13] There are many modern aphrodisiac formulations available, but they shown many side effects and hence in search of new agents, classical Vajikarana formulations of Musali may have the potential to replace current aphrodisiac agents. Here an attempt has been made to collect data pertaining to different Vajikarana formulations of Shweta Musali mentioned in Ayurveda classics, which will be helpful for research and pharmaceutical standardization purpose. The classical texts such as Bharatbhaishajyaratnakar and Bhaishajya Ratnavali are mainly selected for review process because they are primarily compilation texts and contain formulations of herbal and herbo-mineral origin drugs from previous classical texts.

  Materials and Methods Top

Seven classical texts have been studied and various formulations of Musali are compiled from texts including Charaka Samhita (1500–1000 bc),[1]Sushruta Samhita (600 bc),[14]Ashtanga Hridaya (ad 700),[15]Sharangdhar Samhita (13th ce),[9]Yogaratnakara[16] (18th century ce), Bhaishajya Ratnavali[17] (ad 19th century), and Bharatbhaishajyaratnakar[18] (19th century ce). All formulations that contain Musali and mainly or secondarily indicated as Vajikarana are included in this study. Percentages of Musali are calculated by considering all herbal, metallic, and mineral origin ingredients. Percentages are not calculated if the preparation of formulation involves multiple procedures. Dose and anupana (adjuvants) of formulations that mentioned in the texts are also compiled. Some formulations contain more than 10 herbal or herbo-metallic ingredients. Hence, ingredients are mentioned in the table for the formulations, which contains up to 10 ingredients only. The total number of herbal-origin ingredients mentioned in the table should be considered in powder form including Shweta Musali, and metal or mineral mentioned is taken in bhasma (calcined) form. The dose is given as mentioned in the classics; however, dose is not given where it is not mentioned in classical text. The dose range of each dosage form is mentioned as per classical and modern metric system. Ingredients of some formulations are repeated in table because they are mentioned in more than one classical text with difference either in their name or in the method of preparation.

Observation and Results

In this review, seven classical texts were reviewed from which total of 51 Vajikarana formulations of Musali are found. Their name, ingredients, dose, anupana, and textual reference are mentioned in [Table 1]. In this table, percentage of Shweta Musali present in a particular formulation is also calculated. [Graph 1] shows that out of total formulations, 29 formulations contain metal or mineral origin ingredients, 21 formulations contain only herbal origin drugs, 11 formulations are mentioned in Modak form, 10 formulations are of granular form, and 5 formulations are mentioned as Vati or Gutika dosage form. In the formulations of Musali, ingredients such as Godugdha (cow’s milk), Goghrita (cows clarified butter), Khanda sharkara (sugar), and Madhu (honey) are found as anupana, and the drugs such as Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L.), Shatavari (Asperagus racemosus Wild.), Vidarikanda (Pueraria tuberosa), Abhrak, Bhasma (calcined mica), and Rasasindoor (red oxide of mercury) are also found within maximum formulations.
Table 1: Shweta Musali formulations mainly indicated for Vajikarana

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Graph 1: Total number of different dosage forms of classical Vajikarana formulation of Shweta Musali

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  Discussion Top

Shweta Musali is also used as Bhavana dravya, that is, for trituration in the formulations such as Makardhwajo Rasa, Kamakalakhya Ras, Mahakalpa Rasa, Kamadevo Rasa (1) and (2). Powder of Shweta Musali is mentioned as an anupana Dravya in the preparations such as Makardhwajo Rasa and Kamdevo Rasa (2). Maximum percentage of Shweta Musali (50%) is observed in Laghushalamlimula Prayoga.[17] Lowest proportion of Shweta Musali is found in Kesar Paka that contains only 0.19% of Shweta Musali. In the remaining formulations, percentage of Shweta Musali ranges from 0.22% to 26.66%. In the formulations Vallabha Gutika, Mahakameshwaro modak, and Musali Paka Rasa, both white and black variety of Musali are present. In these Vajikarana formulations, Shweta Musali is used as an ingredient in both powder and Swaras (juice) form, and it can also used as adjuvant in some formulations. Vajikarana is one of the major health care segments of Ayurveda, which is said to augment sexual performance, vitalize tissues of reproductive organs, strengthen sperm motility, increase semen count, and improve the quality of the offsprings.[19] It is primarily related with therapies pertaining to specific medication for male infertility and impotence in addition to female infertility. Apart from inducing good aphrodisiacs properties, this persuades increased fertile seminal secretions and an instant sense of pleasurable excitement, even in an aging individual. It is prescribed for the therapeutic use of different aphrodisiacs formulations that reinforce body tissues (Dhatus) such as muscles, blood, and bones, and also for enhancing the vitality and reproductive competency of men.[20]Shweta Musali is a herb that possesses all properties of Vajikarana therapy. In Ayurvedic literature, Shweta Musali is well-known as “Divya Aushad” with immense importance in the preparation of over 100 different formulations for various conditions including Vajikarana therapy. Hence in this review Shweta Musali formulations are selected, which are primarily indicated for Vajikarana therapy. By appropriate use of the Vajikarana preparations, one becomes dexterous with well build, strength, complexion, potency, and sexually strong. These formulations also act as Rasayana and have the potential to invigorate all the body essentials and reinstate stability and health.[21] The word Musali is first mentioned in Harita Samhita and in Charaka Samhita. Talamuli (synonym of Musali) is mentioned in Dhumapana yoga (formulation), which is indicated in Kasachikitsa, and in Sushruta Samhita Musali is mentioned in the Kalpa (formulation) with synonyms Talapatri and Suvaha, which are indicated in the treatment acne, renal stones, and asthama. There are two varieties of Musali, viz., Shweta (white) and Krishna (black) explained in Rajnighantu and Bhavaprakasha Nighantu.[1],[14],[22-24] There are various plant roots used by the name Shweta Musali such as C tuberosum (Roxb.) Baker, A. adscendens Roxb., Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. and Fernand., and C. arundinaceum Baker. These all species are having similar properties and action and belong to family Asparagaceae, and nowadays only few of them are commercially cultivated. Among them, C. borivilianum has good demand worldwide.[25]Chlorophytum borivilianum is popularly known as Shweta Musali and the Krishna (black) Musali is considered to be as Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.[26],[27],[28],[29] The properties of Shweta Musali mentioned in ayurvedic literature are Madhura rasa (taste), Guru (heavy) and Snigdha (slimy) Guna, Shita Virya (potency) and Brihana (health promoter), and Balya Karma (energetic action). Due to these properties, Shweta Musali acts as Sapta-dhatu Vardhaka (potentiating seven basic body elements) and results into increase in Shukra-dhatu (semen), which causes aphrodisiac action. It is primarily used as a tonic to rejuvenate the reproductive system.[10],[24] The alkaloids, glycosides and saponins present in the herb are the cause of its alleged aphrodisiac properties.[13] Hence this herb is helpful in premature ejaculation, impotency, and low sperm count in men. Clinically, Krishna Musali has similar properties and action like Shweta Musali; however, it has Madhura, Tikta Rasa, and Ushna Virya. In research study, Shweta Musali is reported to have an effective spermatogenesis and aphrodisiac potential.[26],[30] Kenjale et al.[31] noticed that it has marked aphrodisiac action and can be useful in the treatment of premature ejaculation and oligospermia. In the clinical study of evaluation of root tubers of Shweta Musali and its effect on semen and testosterone by Rath and Panja[32], it has been noticed that the study corroborates the classical claim that Shweta Musali is a Shukral-dravya as it potentiates the semen and testosterone. In another study, it is found that standardized extract of Shweta Musali is safe in male Wistar rats and also improves aphrodisiac potential.[33] There is no formulations of Musali found in Brihattrayi that is indicated for Vajikarana therapy. In Rasaratnasamucchaya (ad 1200–1300), both Musali and Talmuli words are mentioned, and 17 formulations were explained mainly in Rasayana and Vajikarana.[22]

A total of 51 Vajikarana formulations are found in 7 classical texts reviewed. Of them, 29 formulations contain metal or mineral origin ingredients, 21 formulations contain only herbal origin drugs, 11 formulations are mentioned in Modak (a synonym of Vati with variation in size a quantum of solid dose form—little bigger than vati) form, 10 formulations are of granular form, and 5 formulations are mentioned as Vati or Gutika dosage form [Graph 1]. In these different kinds of dosage forms of Vajikarana formulations, general dose of Churna (powder) is between I Karshato 1.5 tola (12–18g), Vati/Gutika (Tablets) range from 1 mashe to 2.5 tola (1–25g), Modak (large pills) is between 2 mashe and 1.5 tola (2–18g), granular form between 1 tola and 10 tola (12–120g approx.), and Rasaaushadhis (Herbomineral) preparations’ dose is between 1 ratti and 5 mashe (125–5g).[17] These prescribed amount may be given in divided dose and also there is need to study safety and efficacy of large quantity of these formulations.

In the formulations of Shweta Musali, ingredients such as Godugdha (cow’s milk), Goghrita (cows clarified butter), Khanda sharkara (sugar), Madhu (honey), Ashwagandha (W. somnifera L.), Shatavari (A. racemosus Wild.), Vidarikanda (P. tuberosa), Abhrak, Bhasma (calcined mica), Rasasindoor (red oxide of mercury), and so on are observed. According to this, it said that these anupana or the other ingredients may enhance the Vajikarana potential of Musali and also help to avoid other complications.

These classical Vajikarana formulations of Shweta Musali are not available in market or some may available with similar ingredients with different name, and hence safety and efficacy these classical formulations are need to be established. There are many modern aphrodisiac formulation available such as sildenafil citrate and arginine, but they have shown many side effects such as mental disorders, irregular rhythms of the heart, suicidal propensities, and tremors.[34] And hence in search of new agents, classical Vajikarana formulations of Musali may have the potential to replace current aphrodisiac agents and also this review will be useful for research and pharmaceutical manufacturing as well as standardization purpose. The limitations of this the study are that this research article is a review only and its clinical research are not under considerations; this review is of Shweta Musali Vajikarana formulation, and previous safety and efficacy studies were performed only on Shweta Musali and not on its formulations. Hence, there may be difference in the safety and efficacy of its formulations. This review is performed using specific classical texts and not from all the Ayurvedic texts because on the whole data are not possible to express in a single article.

  Conclusion Top

Vajikarana facilitates to improve fertility of both sexes and thus leading to the propagation of healthy future generations. There are 51 formulations of Shweta Musali found, which are mainly indicated for Vajikarana. In these Vajikarana formulations, Shweta Musali is used as an ingredient in both powder and Swaras (juice) form, and it can also used as adjuvant in some formulations. The major adjuvants utilized in these formulations are cow’s milk, Khanda sharkara, and cow’s butter. In these preparations generally cow’s milk, Goghrita, Khanda sharkara, Madhu (honey), Ashwagandha, Shatavari, Vidarikanda, Abhrak, Bhasma, and Rasasindoor are utilized, which may enhance the Vajikarana action of Shweta Musali and minimize its untoward effects. On the basis of previous research, it is concluded that Shweta Musali has significant aphrodisiac and spermatogenic properties and is a safe drug. Current review will be helpful for research and pharmaceutical standardization purpose of classical Vajikarana formulations of Shweta Musali.

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[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
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