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Table of Contents
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 49-56

An inclusive review on Guduchi Satva: A distinctive drug dosage form of Ayurveda pharmaceutics


Department of Dravyaguna, ITRA, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India

Date of Submission02-Feb-2022
Date of Decision11-Feb-2022
Date of Acceptance18-Feb-2022
Date of Web Publication31-Mar-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Anu Joy
Department of Dravyaguna, ITRA, Jamnagar, Gujarat.
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/JISM.JISM_13_22

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  Abstract 

Background: In Ayurveda pharmaceutics, Satva is one of the pharmaceutical preparations obtained from certain plants and it is frequently used in the management of various disease conditions. Among various satva bearing plants, Guduchi (Tinospora Cordifolia (Wild.) Miers) is considered the most potent and is used the most. Almost all classical texts of Ayurveda highlight the use of Guduchi satva in combating different disease conditions, such as Prameha, Jwara, Rajayakshma etc. This review provides single-hand information on Guduchi satva. Materials and Methods: Various properties, preparation methods, and therapeutic applications of Guduchi satva are mentioned in 91 classical texts of Ayurveda, comprising 9 Samhitas (treatise), 17 Chikitsa Granthas (compendia of Ayurveda), 35 Rasagranthas (compendia related to Rasashastra), and 30 Nighantus.Results: It is observed that Satva (solid aqueous extract) has properties such as Swadu rasa (sweet), Seeta (cold), Laghu (lightness) Guna, and Seeta veerya (cold potency). Generally, Guduchi satva is prepared from fresh Guduchi stem. During the preparation of Guduchi satva, fresh Guduchi stem is cut into small pieces; it is then crushed well. After crushing, it is immersed four times in water, macerated well, and kept aside for 12 to 16 hours per day. Then, it is filtered and kept aside for 4–6 hrs. Next, the excess water is removed and the sediment portion is collected. More than 111 formulations, having Guduchi satva as an ingredient, are used to treat almost 39 varied disease conditions. Among these diseased conditions, the maximum are indicated for the management of Prameha, Rajayakshma etc. Conclusion: The available data may encourage researchers and also practitioners to enhance their knowledge and use the various dimensions of the present findings to flourish the various applications of Guduchi satva that have not been scientifically explored till date.

Keywords: Amrita sara, Anupana dravya, Gouna dravya, Guduchi satva, Mukhys dravya


How to cite this article:
Joy A, Acharya R. An inclusive review on Guduchi Satva: A distinctive drug dosage form of Ayurveda pharmaceutics. J Indian Sys Medicine 2022;10:49-56

How to cite this URL:
Joy A, Acharya R. An inclusive review on Guduchi Satva: A distinctive drug dosage form of Ayurveda pharmaceutics. J Indian Sys Medicine [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 May 27];10:49-56. Available from: https://www.joinsysmed.com/text.asp?2022/10/1/49/342317




  Introduction Top


In Ayurveda pharmacopoeia, Guduchi, which is life protecting in nature, is commonly called Vayastha, Amrita, Jivanti, and Rasayani. Guduchi is highlighted for its multifulnctional pharmacological activities and indications.[1]Guduchi is one of the ingredients of total 1526 formulations, which are recommended for 95 disease conditions by internal administration,[2] and it presents in 141 formulations, which are used to combat 65 diseases.[3] Ayurvedic literature mentioned the use of Guduchi in 24 dosage forms, such as Gutika (pills), Taila (oil), Ghrita (medicated ghee), and Arka, Churna (powder), Malahara (ointment), Varti (suppositories), satva (solid aqueous extract) etc.[2]Satva is an aqueous, extractable starchy substance collected from herbal drugs, a well-known and much used dosage form of Guduchi; it is a sedimental aqueous starchy extract taken from stem of Tinospora cordifolia. Ayurveda pharmacopoeia recommends some other plants, namely Chirayata (Swertia chirata) satva, Ardraka (Zingiber officinale) satva, Kutaja (Holarrhena antidysentrica) satva, Yavani (Trachyspermum ammi) satva, and Pootiha (Mentha piperita) satva.[4] The satva, obtained after a series of processes called as gunantaradhana, is considered the best and is prescribed either singly or an ingredient of certain formulations. Individual Ayurveda pharmacopoeias illustrate scattered references of preparations, properties, and uses of Guduchi satva. Till now, there is no single-hand and comprehensive information on Guduchi satva pertaining to its preparations, properties, and uses. Hence, this review work was undertaken and a critical analysis on the Guduchi satva from various classical texts and research was carried out on this typical dosage form of Ayurveda Pharmaceutics.


  Materials and Methods Top


This review covers 91 books, available in both physical and “e” form, under the category of Samhitas, Chikitsagranthas, Rasagranthas, and Nighantus individually, page by page with key words such as Guduchi satva, Guduchi sara, Amrita satva, and Chinna satva etc. for its pharmacological properties, actions, and indications in different diseases either as a single drug or as an ingredient of a formulation, through both internal and external administration.

Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria

This review also copes with the pharmacological properties, actions, and indications of Guduchi satva in different diseases either as a single drug or as an ingredient in a formulation. The books which are only available in manuscript format is not included for the review.

The collected data were analyzed and arranged in a systematic manner according to the synonyms: method of preparation, properties, actions, use as Anupana, Bhavana Dravya, Prakshepa churna, or in a formulation / Yoga as either Mukhya (major) or gouna (minor) ingredient. Mukhya dravya means where Guduchi satva is present as an ingredient in the highest amount; gouna dravya means where Guduchi satva is present only as an ingredient. The formulations that were repeatedly recommended by different authors were considered as one, and all respective book references were combined [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Diagrammatical representation of the collection of matter

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Out of the total 91 books referred to, 35 books provide information on Guduchi satva. The names of the 35 books that contain Guduchi satva are presented in alphabetical order: Ayurveda sara samgraham,[5] Baishajya ratnavali,[6] Basavarajeeyam,[7] Bharata bhaishajya ratnakara,[8] Bhavaprakasa nighantu,[9] Bhavaprakasa samhita,[10] Brihat rasaraja sundara,[11] Gada nigraham,[12] Kaiyadeva nighantu,[13] Mahoushada nighantu,[14] Nighantu adarsa,[15] Raja nighantu,[16] Rasa padhati,[17] Rasajala nidhi,[18] Rasakamadhenu,[19] Rasamrutam,[20] Rasaraja mahodadi,[21] Rasaratna samuchyam,[22] Rasatarangini,[23] Rasayana sara,[24] Rasayoga sagara,[25] Rasendra chintamani,[26] Rasendra mangalam,[27] Rasendra sambhavam,[28] Saligrama nighantu bhooshana,[29] Sankara nighantu,[30] Sarangadhara samhita,[31] Sidhayoga samgraha,[32] Vaidya chintamani,[33] Vaidya rahasya,[34] Vangasena,[35] Yoga chintamani,[36] Yogaratnakara,[37] Rasendra sara samgraham,[38] and Rasatantra sara va sidhayoga samgraha.[39]

NAMASTE portal was used for finding the English equivalent terms of various classical terms.[40]

Data Analysis

The repetition of a single formulation noted in more than one text was considered as one.


  Observation and Result Top


Nomenclature

Guduchi satva is also known as Amrita Sara,[19],[37]Guduchi Sara,[6],[25],[26],[28],[33],[37]Amrita satva,[6],[8],[10],[15],[18],[22],[25]Sita satva,[25]Amaravalli Satva,[25]Chinna satva,[8],[19],[37]Madhukuli,[7]Amrita sarkara,[33]Amruta rasa,[8] and Chinnodbhava satva.[8]

Preparation

Guduchi satva is commonly obtained from its fresh stem, subsequent to cutting them in to small pieces and smashing them well and putting in to 4 times of water of the stem weight[5],[9],[14],[32] followed by through maceraction and keeping it undistrubed for 12 hrs[32] followed by removal of excess water and collection of the sediment portion.[32] There are two references for the drying of collected satva such as dried under shade[25] and under direct sun.[14],[30]

There is a commentary which opinion that, after adding 4 times of water kept as it is for 3 hrs then mix well. After proper mixing water is removed then repeat this process again by adding water. Repeat this procedure 3 times. Finally, the collected water was kept as it is for overtime (12 hrs).[39] There are different opinions about the exact time duration for which the macerated Guduchi stem should be kept undisturbed. Some opine that it should be kept in water for 12–24 hrs,[9],[14] whereas others opine that the soaking time of crushed Guduchi is two days in water.[29],[30]

Guna (Properties)

Guduchi satva is Sweta,[30]Subhra ghanda nibham (white)[25] in color, Swadu (sweet)[15],[29] with slight Tikta (bitter)[30] in taste, and it possesses Seeta,[39]Laghu,[5],[29]Guna (properties) and Sita virya (cold potency).[39]

Therapeutic Administration

There are different opinions about the dose of Guduchi satva. It varies from 2 to 4 ratti (250–500 mg), 5 to 15 rati (625 mg–1.8 g), 4 rati to 1 masha (500 mg–1 g), and 2 masha (2 g).[5],[9],[14],[32],[39]Madhu[5],[39] and Ksheera[39] are recommended as Anupana for Guduchi satva.

Karma (Pharmacological Action)

Indications of Guduchi satva, as a single drug, in various diseased conditions that are classified under various srotas and sarva sansthanika vyadhies are presented in [Table 1] and [Figure 2].
Table 1: Attributed pharmacological actions of Guduchi satva

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Figure 2: Karma of Guduchi satva

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Formulations Containing Guduchi satva as a Mukhya (Major) Ingredient

Guduchi satva is being used as a single dosage form, as an ingredient, as an anupana dravya, as a prakshepa choorna, or as a Bhavana dravya in about 111 formulations [Figure 3].
Figure 3: Role of Guduchi satva in formulations

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It is observed that Guduchi satva is used as a main ingredient in 11 formulations, and it is indicated for nine disease conditions. The formulations being catagorized as per their adhikara (main indication) are presented in [Table 2].
Table 2: Formulations containing Guduchi satva as main ingredient

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As a Gouna dravya (Minor Ingredient)

It is observed that 67 formulations include Guduchi satva as a minor ingredient. The formulations are catagorized as per their adhikara (main indication) and are presented in [Table 3].
Table 3: Formulations containing Guduchi satva as a Gouna dravya (minor ingredient)

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As a Prakshepa Choorna

In 13 formulations, Guduchi satva is recommended as a prakshepa choorna. All the obbserved formulations are being arranged according to their indications and presented in [Table 4].
Table 4: Formulations containing Guduchi satva as a prakshepa choorna

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As a Bhavana dravya

In six formulations, Guduchi satva is used as a bhavana dravya. [Table 5] shows a total of six formulations where Guduchi satva is present as a bhavana dravya [Table 5].
Table 5: Formulations containing Guduchi satva as a bhavana dravya

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As an Anupana

It is observed that Guduchi satva is recommended as an anupana in 14 formulations. These formulations are being arranged according to their adhikara and they are presented in [Table 6]. Guduchi satva is also indicated as an anupana dravya in vomiting[7] and it is also used as anupana during the use of Abhraka bhasma,[18] which is indicated in meha nasanam. Guduchi satva can be taken as anupana for Parada and parade bhakshana also[18],[33] for deha pushti.
Table 6: Formulations recommended for administration along with Guduchi satva as an anupana in various diseases

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Other Clinical Applications

Some other clinical applications are also noticed during the review, such as the usage of Guduchi satva indicated with various rasaushadhies such as Mrith seesakasya amayika prayogam,[23]Abhrka amayika prayogam,[23]Suvarna bhasma amayika prayogam,[23]Thalakasya amayika prayogam,[23] and Vanga bhasma amayika prayoga.[23],[37]Haritala along with Guduchi satva can be used for vatasranasanam.[23]Guduchi satva exhibits the property of vajeekarana and can also be indicated for shanda[36]Guduchi satva is considered as a vajeekarana vastu for shanda.[10]

Therapeutic Utility of Guduchi satva with Different Anupana

Ayurvediya rahasya arka reports multiple uses of Guduchi satva in 28 diseases and it is administered with different anupanas[42] [Table 7].
Table 7: Multiple therapeutic utility of Guduchi satva with different anupanas

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  Discussion Top


Out of the 91 books referred to, 35 books contain Guduchi satva as a mukhya dravya, Gouna dravya, as prakshepa choorna, bhavana dravya and as anupana dravya. A total of 111 formulations are mentioned with Guduchi satva and 11 synonyms are mentioned in various classics; out of these, Guduchi satva is the most commonly used synonym followed by Amrita Sara and Guduchi Sara also. All acharyas opined that the Guduchi satva is prepared from the fresh stem only, and the water added should be four times that of the weight of the stem. Some difference in opinion is mainly present in the soaking time. Even though the traditional method is mentioned by different acharyas and commentators, various strands of research are also done for the standerdization of the preparation of Guduchi satva. These bodies of research show that when Guduchi satva is prepared from fresh stem, four times water is added to it an approximately well macerated Guduchi will kept as it is for 12 to 15 hrs followed by the filteration and the filtered water will kept as it for 4 to 5 hrs. Then, the upper most portion of water was discarded and then collect the sedimented portion.[43],[44],[45] There are some differences while considering the AFI mentioned during the preparation of Guduchi satva, such as the water amount is 21 times that of the drug’s weight and macerated water should be kept overnight, that is for 12 hrs. Through the compilation of the different acharyas’ opinions, we will get a clear picture of the Guduchi satva Guna and their properties. Guduchi satva in total is swadu and laghu seeta in nature. Recent research shows different results in the taste of Guduchi satva; some researches present it as slightly tiktha whereas others present it as tasteless.[46],[47] Even though different matra is mentioned by different acharyas, AFI suggested 1 gm as the dosage.[48] Various constituents are reported in satva, such as alkaloids, carbohydrates are present. Seasonal variations that will effect the quantity and quality of satva are also noted by previous researchers.[49] Various diseases are indicated for Guduchi satva as a single drug; out of these, five diseases come under Pranavaha srotas, 10 diseases in Annavaha and Purishavaha srotas, six diseases in Rasavaha srotas followed by eight diseases in Mootravaha srotas and only one disease in Udakavaha srotas, swedavaha srotas, and Vatavaha srotas. The maximum number of diseases come under Rasavaha srotas, that is, 15 in number. It is noticed that most of the indications proposed by the various formulations are overlapping with the indications mentioned for the Guduchi satva as a single drug. Some special indications are also noticed for the single drug indications and also in formulations such as Madyapana hatoujasa, Dhatu Ushnata, Dusthara teevra tapam etc.

The formulations that contain Guduchi satva as a Mukhya dravya are mainly indicated in Prameha diseases. Out of the 11 formulations, three formulations are indicated for Prameha and Rajayekshma respectively. Overall, Guduchi satva formulations are mainly indicated for Prameha, which is a Santharpana janya vyadhi and it also produces the dhatu shosha in later stages. So Guduchi, which is known as Vayastha and Amrita in general, will help the patient get relief from this condition.

Out of various diseased conditions, some other indications are also mentioned in classics such as Deepana, Varnya, Balya, Dhatupushti etc. Traditionally, Prameha, Rajayekshma, Kshaya, Rakthapitta, Vajeekarana etc are indicated for the Guduchi satva. And recent researches also state this with various researches. A total of 7 researches clarifies the various indications scientifically. Some of them are effect of Guduchi satva on Vataraktha[5],[6],[8],[11],[19],[23],[25],[26],[28],[38] through anti-rheumatoid activity,[50] effect on Kamala[25] by hepatoprotective activity,[50] indication on Madyapana hatoujasa[25],[33] by hepatotoxicity by alcohol induced,[51]Prameha[6],[8],[11],[12],[18],[19],[23],[24],[25],[26],[33],[37],[39] by Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity[52] and Kushtha[8] by antimicrobial screening,[53]Amlapitta by clinical and experimental research in Urdhaga Amlapitta[54] and Amlapitta.[42] Although Guduchi satva is indicated for various diseases, research is conducted for six diseases only. This shows scope for future research in terms of quality, phytochemicals etc.

Number of Formulations Indicated in Various Diseased Conditions

In total, 39 various diseases are indicated for a total of 111 formulations. Guduchi satva is mostly indicated for prameha (Sukra prameha included), where 20 formulations are indicated, followed by 14 formulations in Vajeekarana, eight in Pandu and Rajayekshma, four formulations in Raktapitta, Arshas, Pittaja vikara, Vatarakta, sarva rogahara, kasa, Udara, and Pushti, and three formulations in Vishama jwara, Mootrakrichra and Mootraghata, Agnimandya and Amavata. These are followed by two formulations in Atisara, Kushta, Hridroga, and Amlapitta, only one formulation in Karsya, Rakthatisara, and Pradara, and so on [Figure 4] and [Figure 5].
Figure 4: Number of diseases indicated for various formulations

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Figure 5: Number of diseases indicated

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  Conclusion Top


More than 111 formulations contain Guduchi satva in one form or in another, and they are used to treat almost 39 varied disease conditions. Among these diseased conditions, the maximum number of formulations are indicated for the management of Prameha (diabetic), followed by Vajeekarana, Rajayakshma, Pandu etc. The available data may encourage researchers and also practitioners to enhance their knowledge and use the various dimensions of the present findings to flourish the various applications of Guduchi satva that are not scientifically explored till date.

Financial Support and Sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of Interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
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    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7]



 

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