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Table of Contents
REVIEW ARTICLES
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 127-135

A comprehensive review of Pratinidhi Dravya from commentaries of Sharangdhara Samhita


Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, All India Institute of Ayurveda, New Delhi, Delhi, India

Date of Submission27-Jan-2022
Date of Acceptance22-May-2022
Date of Web Publication28-Jun-2022

Correspondence Address:
Sakshi Badyal
Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, All India Institute of Ayurveda, Mathura Road, Gautam Puri, Sarita Vihar, New Delhi, Delhi 110076
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jism.jism_12_22

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  Abstract 

Introduction: Substitutes (Pratinidhi Dravya) is a known concept since Samhita period but became popular during 16th–17th century. Substitutes are important in the present scenario where the availability of raw drug is a big concern. The current available published data focuses on substitutes described by Bhavpraksha and Yogratnakara. But before these texts, commentators of Sharangdhara Samhita have explained Abhava Dravya under different formulations. No work has been done to highlight their contribution. Materials and Methods: A thorough review of entire Sharangdhara Samhita along with its two commentaries, i.e., Deepika and Gudhartha Deepika, has been done along with databases and published literature. Result and Conclusion: Through this review, a clear insight of the seers was observed in choosing substitutes by prioritizing the therapeutic profile of the drug or formulation.

Keywords: Abhava Dravya, Pratinidhi Dravya, Sharangdhara Samhita, substitutes


How to cite this article:
Badyal S, Tambe GA, Yadav PR, Prajapati PK. A comprehensive review of Pratinidhi Dravya from commentaries of Sharangdhara Samhita. J Indian Sys Medicine 2022;10:127-35

How to cite this URL:
Badyal S, Tambe GA, Yadav PR, Prajapati PK. A comprehensive review of Pratinidhi Dravya from commentaries of Sharangdhara Samhita. J Indian Sys Medicine [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Aug 13];10:127-35. Available from: https://www.joinsysmed.com/text.asp?2022/10/2/127/348470




  Introduction Top


Ayurveda, the ancient science of life, believes that there are four basic pillars involved in treating the disease, i.e., physician (Bhishaka), drug (Dravya), paramedical staff (Upasthatha), and patient (Rogi).[1] Among these, following physician, medicine or drug is considered to be the most important pillar. In recent times and in midst of COVID-19 pandemic, herbal drugs have gained popularity because of which an increased trend in their use has been observed across the globe. With an increased demand of the drugs and simultaneously with growing civilization and industrialization, scarcity of these is commonly observed. Formulation (Kalpa), composed of multiple herbal drugs, is considered to be base for Ayurvedic management. An ideal drug must be qualitatively acceptable (Sampannata), should be able to cure the disease (Yogyata), available in abundance (Bahuta), and can be processed in multiple dosage forms (Anekavidha Kalpana).[2] The need of the substitutes was well understood by ancient seers, and hence the concept of “Abhava Pratinidhi Dravya” was highlighted in commentaries of Sharangdhara Samhita, i.e., Adhmalla (14th century), Kashirama Vaidya (16th century), Bhavaprakasha (16th century), Yogratnakara (18th century), and Bhaishajya Ratnavali (16th century).

The term Abhava Dravya is well elaborated in Bhavaprakasha under the title “Anekartha naam varga,”[3]Yogratnakara in his treatise under the heading “Abhava varga,”[4] and by Govinddas Sen in Bhaishajya Ratnavali under “Abhava Prakarana” before starting the treatment part of the book. According to Govinddas Sen, substitutes or Pratinidhi Dravya should be of similar taste (Rasa), property (Guna), potency (Veerya), and effect on digestion (Vipaka).[5]

Sharangdhara Samhita is the basic classical text of Bhaishajya Kalpana, written by Acharya Sharangdhara. This text is very well constructed and is divided into three Khandas containing 32 chapters and 2600 verses. The text has following commentators:

  1. Bopadeva (14th century): first Sanskrit commentary


  2. Vaidya Adhamalla (14 A.D): Sharangadhara Deepika (Sanskrit)


  3. Kashirama Vaidya (16 A.D): Gudhartha Deepika (Sanskrit)


  4. Rudrabhatta (17 A.D): Ayurveda Deepika (Sanskrit—available only for Madhyama and Uttara khanda).[6]


Previous published work available on Abhava Pratinidhi Dravya has laid emphasis over the texts of Bhavaprakasha, Yogratnakara, and Bhaishajya Ratnavali, but no study has been found highlighting the substitutes mentioned in the commentaries of Sharangdhara Samhita. Hence, this study shifts the focus on commentaries of Sharangdhara Samhita written by Adamalla and Kashiram Vaidya, respectively. Another reason was that Adamalla commentary on Sharangdhara Samhita is of earlier period than all the other three texts who has elaborated Abhava Dravya, so its contribution also holds an importance.


  Materials and Methods Top


The classical text “Sharangdhara Samhita” with its two commentaries Adhamalla’s Deepika and Kashirama’s Gudhartha Deepika, edition 2018, published by Chaukhamba Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi, was screened thoroughly, and various published research articles were also analyzed for the collection of related data. Databases such as PubMed, Medline, and search engine Google scholar were also used for the same.


  Observation and Result Top


Pratinidhi Dravya mentioned by commentaries of Sharangdhara Samhita on the basis of certain factors can be categorized. At first, Abhava Dravya is described by Acharya Sharangdhara [Table 1]. About 14 drugs are there in which different parts of the same plant are used as substitutes [Table 2]. There are certain drugs that follow similar pharmacodynamics [Table 3]. Twenty drugs are found, which do not have same pharmacodynamics [Table 4]. Two substitute drugs are such, which are group representatives [Table 5]. In [Table 6], such substitutes are mentioned, which differs in processing. Drugs that have similar chemical composition are also used as substitutes [Table 7]. In certain cases, a single drug is used as a substitute in the absence of formulation [Table 8]. Certain miscellaneous drugs are found to be substitutes [Table 9].
Table 1: Anukta Dravya described by Sharangdhara Samhita

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Table 2: Different plant parts being used as Abhava Dravya mentioned in Deepika commentary

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Table 3: Dravya following Rasa-Veerya-Vipaka

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Table 4: List of Dravyas that do not follow Rasa-Veerya-Vipaka

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Table 5: Dravyas that are group representatives

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Table 6: Dravya that differs in processing

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Table 7: Dravya with similar chemical composition

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Table 8: Dravya mentioned in the absence of formulation

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Table 9: Miscellaneous substitutes

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  Discussion Top


Abhava Dravya mentioned by commentators of Sharangdhara Samhita is of prime importance from both pharmaceutical and therapeutic points of view. All the substitutes are described in the two commentaries of Sharangdhara Samhita, i.e., Deepika and Gudhartha Deepika only and are not found in Moola Samhita. Unlike other texts, in Sharangdhara Samhita, the substitutes have been described under formulations and not in separate chapter. The probable reason behind this could be that the selection of Abhava Dravya is done with a reference to its similar therapeutic activity to that of the replaced drug.[61] There could be many possibilities behind mentioning Abhava Dravya. It may be due to geographical variability, cost effectiveness, seasonal availability, doubtful identity, or extinct herbs.

Substitution is also only applicable in case of unavailability of the drugs other than the main drug in a formulation. All the substitutes of Sharangdhara Samhita can be categorized under different groups. Certain substitute drugs seem to be different parts of the same plant, whereas some have similar Rasa-Guna-Veerya and some have same phytoconstituents.

In Sharangdhara Samhita, certain things are not clearly explained, which are further clarified by Sharangadhara Deepika commentary and Gudhartha Deepika. Acharya Sharangdhara has described Anukta in Pratham khanda, and its commentators have elaborated Abhava Dravya under individual formulations. He has also mentioned that if any drug is required in a specific formulation, which is not mentioned in the classical text, then it can be added or replaced as per their need by other drug, which is having similar action. While describing Anukta, Sharangdhara has grossly mentioned substitutes, e.g., in the absence of larger root system (Atisthula Jata), bark (Tvaka) of the plant is to be considered and in the absence of tender root system (Sukshma Moola), whole root system (Sakal Moola) is taken.

In the unavailability of mentioned plant part, another part of the same plant is advised to be taken, e.g., the stem of Daruharidra is mentioned as a substitute of bark of Daruharidra. Since the availability of bark in terms of its quantity could be limited and bark being a part of stem could be used in place of it. Also, data have been published showing that the bark and stem of the same plant contain similar phytoconstituents such as alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, phenols, and cyogenic glycosides,[62] owing to similar therapeutic activity. Likewise, Kushmanda fruit (Phala) is mentioned in the absence of Kushmanda. Because it is not described that which part of Kushmanda is to be taken, so according to Anukuta of Sharangdhara, Jata (root system) is to be considered. And if it is not available, then fruit is advised.

There are some substitutes that follow similar pharmacodynamics to that of the main drug, which is not available. These drugs also possess similar certain phytoconstituents, which result in the same activity, e.g., both Shati and Vacha contain the same chemical entities as δ-terpineol, α-terpineol, caryophyllene, etc.[63],[64]

Many substitute drugs do not follow the similar Rasa-Veerya-Vipaka but may be designated as the substitute because of similar actions. Such 21 drugs have been mentioned in, e.g., Aralu is Tikta-Kshaya in Rasa, Sheeta Veerya, and Katu Vipaka, whereas Shyonaka possesses Madhur-Tikta Rasa, Ushna Veerya, and Katu Vipaka, but both do have similar properties such as Grahi, Deepana, Pachana, and Atisara nashaka, explaining why Shyonaka is indicated in Atisara in the absence of Aralu putapaka.[65],[66] Both Chavya and Gajapippali are indicated in Atisara in spite of varying Rasa-Veerya-Vipaka.[67]Satala and Sehund jata are Virechaka in Guna and hence used in Udara roga.[68]Draksha and Kustha can be considered as substitutes in certain conditions by the physician when there is already predominance of Ushna Guna and Kushtha already being Ateeva Ushna may be the substituted by Draksha. Also, both are having similar action, i.e., Shoshanashaka and Triptighana.[69],[70] Both Bhallataka and Bakuchi have Vatakapha shamka and Jwaraghana properties.[71],[72]Vriddadaruka and Nishotha both are considered to be best Arshoghana because of its Virechaka properties.[73],[74]Karpoora and Shatavari both possess Sheeta property and are useful in Daha Vikara; also both act on the urinary system.[75],[76]Pippali and Kramuka are Tridosha shamaka and have Krumighna, Vidradhi nashaka properties.[67],[77]Raktachandana is mentioned as the substitute of Bhallataka, since Bhallataka being Atyaushna cannot be well tolerated by all the individuals so Raktachandana can be used instead. Another probable reason could be that Bhallataka is said to be the best drug for Arsha, and raktchandana acts on Raktavaha Srotas Vikara.[71],[78]

It is not clearly mentioned that which part of the substitute is to be taken whether similar to that of unavailable drug or to be considered as per Anukta or according to its Prayojya Anga.

In the unavailability of an entire group of drugs (Gana), single drug representing that entire gana has been mentioned as its substitute.

In Dravya, those that contain similar major chemical entity are described, e.g., Kapardika and Shankha are drugs containing calcium as a main ingredient.[79]Neelanjana and Sisaka both are lead-containing drugs and similarly Tuttha and Tamra also contain copper. This was well known to our seers and hence they have used these drugs as the substitutes.[80]

Jambira Swarasa is sour in taste and acidic in nature. In its absence, Chukradi (acidic fermentations) is advised to be taken. In the absence of another acidic fermentation, i.e., Kanjika, Jambira Swarasa is to be taken. All these Dravya possess similar properties and have almost equivalent pH lying between 2 and 3.

Out of total 69 substitutes mentioned by the two commentaries of Sharangdhara Samhita, substitutes described by Deepika commentary are 55, whereas Gudhartha Deepika has mentioned 14 substitutes.

In D&C Act under chapter 3, section 9B, the use of substitutes is not recommended while defining spurious drugs. But in the present context, when all the mentioned classical drugs are not available, which is a major concern while composing a formulation, then these studies can be used as scientific basis for the use of substitutes mentioned in the classical texts.


  Conclusion Top


In this work, Abhava Dravya described in commentaries of Sharangdhara Samhita has been highlighted as this text book is pharmaceutically very essential. Also, since the substitutes have been described separately under each formulation, it signifies that their selection is more specifically on the basis of their therapeutic properties. More work can be done in this field to validate the classical references of using substitutes. Hence, Abhava Dravya described by commentators of Sharangdhara holds an importance.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge Dr. Galib R, Associate Professor, and Dr. Aleena Gauri, Post Graduate Scholar (Final Year), Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, AIIA.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8], [Table 9]



 

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