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Table of Contents
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 234-240

The formulations in Rasayogsagar for treating toxicity: Critical review


1 P.G. Department of Agad Tantra, National Institute of Ayurveda, Amer Road, Jaipur 302002, Rajasthan, India
2 Department of Roga Nidana, National Institute of Ayurveda, Amer Road, Jaipur 302002, Rajasthan, India
3 Department of Shalya Tantra, National Institute of Ayurveda, Amer Road, Jaipur 302002, Rajasthan, India

Date of Submission23-Jun-2022
Date of Decision19-Nov-2022
Date of Acceptance02-Dec-2022
Date of Web Publication31-Dec-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Narayan Pandey
P.G. Department of Agad Tantra, National Institute of Ayurveda, Amer Road, Jaipur 302002, Rajasthan
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jism.jism_50_22

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  Abstract 

Background: In the current era, different toxicants are a major problem for human Owing to industrialization and civilization, people are embedded in the test-tube of toxins. Different kinds of toxicants, which are called xenobiotics, found in the form of chemicals, pesticides, coloring agents, and antibiotics, which enter into the body through different routes such as oral, dermal, and inhalation, play an important role as a etiological factor for the pathology of different diseases such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cancer, and so on. All these artificial poisons are considered to be Kritrim Visha, which are also called Gara Visha in Ayurveda, which is described to be one of the causative factors to cause disease conditions. So, it is necessary to identify those preparations or formulations which act as an anti-toxic action. The classical text, i.e., Rasayogsagar, has mentioned thousands of preparations, among them about 74 are Vishaghna Yoga (anti-toxic preparations) which have been specifically indicated either in animate or in inanimate toxicity or in both. These formulations in the modern era have a great importance to reduce the toxicity level in human beings. So, these preparations must be prepared and made available everywhere following the guidelines of preparation mentioned in Rasayogsagar, which could play to pacify the toxic substance and prevent the harmful effects in human beings. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is as follows: (i) To study the indication of different preparations mentioned in Rasayogsagar for different toxic manifestations. (ii) A detailed literary study of contents and methods of preparations of Vishaghna (anti-toxic) with doses and route of administration. Materials and Methods: The article is based on literary review regarding anti-toxic action (Vishaghna) of various kinds of preparations, which has been collected and compiled from Ayurvedic compendium (i.e., Rasayogsagar). Results and Conclusion: In total, 74 anti-toxic (Vishaghna) formulations have been found in Rasayogsagar. Most of them have found to be specifically indicated in anti-toxic action-specific (Visha Rogadhikar) and some of them have been indicated in other disease conditions but have anti-toxic properties (Vishaghna) also.

Keywords: Antitoxic, pacification, Vishaghna


How to cite this article:
Pandey N, Sharma A, Kadu AS, Das K, Itani N, Pokhrel SM. The formulations in Rasayogsagar for treating toxicity: Critical review. J Indian Sys Medicine 2022;10:234-40

How to cite this URL:
Pandey N, Sharma A, Kadu AS, Das K, Itani N, Pokhrel SM. The formulations in Rasayogsagar for treating toxicity: Critical review. J Indian Sys Medicine [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Jan 28];10:234-40. Available from: https://www.joinsysmed.com/text.asp?2022/10/4/234/366513


  Introduction Top


Visha is a substance having various kinds of attributes such as Vyavayi (spreading), Vikashi (loosening of ligament), Ushna (hotness), Teekshna (sharpness), Ruksha (dryness), Sukshma (minuteness), Asukar (quick acting), Aniedeshyarasa (tasteless), and Apaki (indigestible).[1] Other properties after entering into the body interfere with the natural physiological functions of the body (i.e., by vitiating the Dosha, Dhatu, Mala, Shrotas) and cause the deterioration of health of human beings or destruction of life.[2]

Various kinds of toxins play a significant role in producing the pathogenesis of different disease conditions, in which the anti-toxic (Vishaghna) treatment modality plays a pivotal role for treating such toxin-based disease ailments. Hence, through Ayurvedic prospective, there is a need to identify such preparations which are indicated under poisoning conditions.

Rasayogsagar is an important classical text and is the compendium of different herbo-mineral preparations. About 74 herbo-mineral classical preparations have been mentioned in this classical text that have been taken from various classical texts such as Amrit Rasendra Rasa from Rasalankara, UnmattaBhairavo Rasa (2nd) from RasayanaSangraha, and so on, indicated in toxic (Visha) conditions. Among these preparations, some of them have been indicated in animate, inanimate or both poisoning conditions. Through this review, we are trying to look for the importance of these preparations mentioned in Rasagogsagar that could help to pacify various toxicants and to prevent from various morbid conditions. Hence, the present review is carried out to identify the different preparations mentioned in Rasayogsagar having the anti-toxic action.


  Materials and Methods Top


The article is based on literary review regarding Vishaghna (anti-toxic) action of different formulations that have been mentioned in different diseases in Rasayogsagar. This study shows literary re-considerations on Rasayogsagar.


  Observations and Results Top





  Discussion Top


According to the classical and contemporary view, there are various kinds of poisons.[3],[4]Vagbhat has classified all these poisons into two groups, i.e., Akritrim (natural) and Kritrim (artificial). Where toxic effect developed by plant sources, i.e., Sthavar (inanimate), all kinds of poison that have induced by different kinds of animals, i.e., Jangam (animate), come under AkritrimVisha, whereas GaraVisha comes under KritrimVisha. Poison that is developed by the mixing of two or more than two substances that cause harmful effects to human beings is called GaraVisha.[5] All kinds of toxins that have slowly transferred into the body after recurrent exposure to inanimate, animate or artificial poison for long time are called cumulative toxicity.[6]

Various kinds of exogenous substances (xenobiotics) inside the body lodge for several years to cause different types of disease pathology including auto-immune disorders, endocrine disorders, neurological disorders or neuro-degenerative disorders. For various kinds of disease conditions, poison could be one of the important causative factors in the present scenario and hence there is a strong need to involve Visha Pratyanic Chikitsa along with Dosha Pratyanic and Vyadhipratynic Chikitsa for that particular disease condition. In Ayurveda, thousands of preparations have been mentioned in various forms such as Ghrita, Kashaya, Rasa-AushadKalpa, and so on, which can be helpful for neutralizing the toxic effect. So, it is needed to identify those formulations which are having the anti-toxic action that could help pacify the toxic effect.

Rasayog Sagar is one of the important texts which contain several kinds of preparations in various forms, which are specially indicated in pathological conditions due to toxicants.

Among these preparations, most of them have herbo-minerals drugs that contain anti-toxic properties [Table 1] and [Table 2].
Table 1: Preparations having anti-toxic action in Rasayogsagar: Part 1

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Table 2: Preparations having anti-toxic action in Rasayogsagar: Part 2

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Nirgundi bark, Haridra, ilaichi, Chandana, Keshar, and so on are common herbal ingredients in most of the preparations. Similarly, gold (Swarna bhasma), Abhrak bhasma, alum, blue vitrol are the mineral ingredients, and cow’s urine, honey, and cow’s milk are the common adding substances (Prakshep) used in those preparations.

Charak has mentioned 10 Vishaghna Mahakashaya such as Haridra, Ilaichi, Chandan, and so on, which play a role for the neutralization or pacification of various toxicants.[6]

Similarly, the use of Swarna bhasma has mentioned about neutralization of artificial poison, also called Gara Visha.[7]

In the modern context, purified gold contains anti-toxic properties and antioxidant and immunomodulator activity along with rejuvenation and longivity.[8]

Sushrita has mentioned that cow’s urine acts as an anti-toxic activity (Vishaghna). Similarly, various researches have proven that cow’s urine acts as a bioenchacer. Cow’s urine shows potency against various kinds of micro-organisms and is also used for treating autoimmune diseases such as cancer, AIDS, diabetes mellitus, and skin manifestations that are due to toxicants.[9]

Vrarari Rasa is a preparation that contains Nara Mutra (human urine), as classical text of Bhava Prakash Nighantu has mentioned that human urine is used as Rashayana and is indicated for treating Gara Visha, cleanses toxicants from blood and it can be used in skin manifestations occurring due to toxicants.[10] Sushruta has also explained the anti-toxic property of human urine.[11]

During the preparations of formulations and for various kinds of toxic plant source ingredients (Dhatura, Kuchila, Vatsanabh, and so on), animate poisons have been used. Regarding the probable mode of action, Charak in his Chikitsa Sthan has mentioned to use plant toxins (inanimate poisons) to counteract animate poison and vice versa.[12] Keeping this concept in mind, they have generated the formulation to counteract the animate poison; preparations containing the majority of inanimate poison (Sthavar Visha) and animate posion (Jangam Visha) is used [Table 3].
Table 3: List of formulations in different kinds of poisons

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In various preparations, bile of different kinds of animals have been used during preparations. Although the clear mechanism of action of bile through classical text is not mentioned, modern various experimental studies have performed regarding the action of bile in drug absorption where it shows that the composition of bile increases the drug absorption.[13] Bile of different animals enhances the bioavaibility that could enhance the absorption of drugs and also increases potency of these preparations.

Thus, this is an attempt to identify the herbo-mineral preparations mentioned in Rasayogsagar, mentioned in the context of different disease conditions. Some preparations have anti-toxic effects and are specifically indicated for treating different types of toxic disorders, and some preparations have been indicated in different disease conditions showing anti-toxic effects also.

Taking into consideration the significant role of toxic in different disease pathologies, it is essential to identify those formulations in which toxin plays an important role as etiology, and there is need of Visha PratyanicChikitsa (poison-specific treatment) also. Hence, these formulations could be helpful for managing the different disease conditions which have anti-toxic action [Table 4].
Table 4: Preparations having anti-toxic action under various toxic conditions

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These kinds of formulations are not available in the modern era. Some preparations are difficult because of the unavailability of ingredients and complicated methods for preparations, whereas some preparations such as MahaShiladiYoga (3rd) and Mana ShiladiVati can easily be prepared because their ingredients are less in number and easily available.

With this thorough review, we must focus on to prepare those preparations that have been mentioned in the Rasayogsagar, which is having anti-toxic action that could play the role to counteract poisonous effect of different sources and that may save the life.


  Conclusion Top


There is a strong need to identify the Ayurvedic herbal formulations or Ayurvedic herbo-mineral formulations which have anti-toxic actions. There is a significant role of different types of poison or artificial poison in the pathogenesis of different types of disease conditions such as cancer, autoimmune disorders, and so on. So that the physician can widely use such formulations in their medical practice as VyadhiPratyanik, DoshaPratyanic as well as Visha Pratyanik preparations.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Sushruta. Sushruta Samhita. Shastri AD, Sutrasthana 1/14, 2019ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan; 2019. p. 6.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Vagbhatta. Astangahridaya. Tripathi B, Uttarsthan, 35/5, 2019. Delhi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan; 2019. p. 1144.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Gautam B Review of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers; 2019. p. 467.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Srinivas R, Vasudeva MS, Raghuram Rao A Xenobiotics in health and disease: The two sides of a coin: A clinician’s perspective. Open Acc J Toxicol 2020;4:555641. doi: 10.19080/OAJT.2020.04.555641.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Sushruta. Sushruta Samhita. Shastri AD. Kalpasthan 2 /25–26, 2019ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan; 2019. p. 32.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Charak. Charak Samhita. Sukla Vidhyadhar and T. Ravidatta, Sutra Sthan 4/16. Delhi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan; 2012.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Charak. Charak Samhita. Sukla Vidhyadhar and T. Ravidatta, Chikitsa Sthan 23/239–240. Delhi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan; 2012. p. 572.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Patil T, Wele A, Patil S A preliminary report on bioavailability of Ayurvedic Gold Bhasma with four different accompanying media [anupana]. World J Adv Res Rev 2021;12:033-44.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Meena M, Patel P, Saini S, Gurjar T, Gogoi R, Meena OP Go mutra (cow urine) and its uses: An overview. J Entomol Zool Stud 2019;7:1218-22.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Gulhane H, Nakanekar A, Mahakal N, Bhopale S, Salunke A Gomutra (cow urine): A multidimensional drug review article. Int J Res Ayurveda Pharma 2017;8:1-6.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Shashtri A Sushrut Samhita Part 1. Sutrasthan, 45/228. Varanasi: Chokhambha Sankrit Sansthan; 2005. p. 187.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Charak. Charak Samhita. Sukla Vidhyadhar and T. Ravidatta, Chikitsa Sthan 23/17. Delhi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan; 2012. p. 541.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Holm R, Müllertz A, Mu H Bile salts and their importance for drug absorption. Int J Pharm 2013;453:44-55.  Back to cited text no. 13
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

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