|Year : 2022 | Volume
| Issue : 4 | Page : 251-255
Therapeutic indications of formulations of Kapardika Bhasma (Cowrie calx) described in bharat bhaishajya ratnakar
Pranjali Dukare, Bharat Jagdishaji Rathi, Anita Wanjari, Mujahid Khan
Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved College Hospital & Research Center, Datta Meghe Institute of Higher Education and Research (Deemed to be University), Wardha, Maharasthra, India
|Date of Submission||15-Jul-2022|
|Date of Decision||10-Dec-2022|
|Date of Acceptance||10-Dec-2022|
|Date of Web Publication||31-Dec-2022|
Dr. Bharat Jagdishaji Rathi
Department of Rasashastra & Bhaishajya Kalpana, Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved College and Hospital and Research Centre, Datta Meghe Institute of Higher Education and Research (Deemed to be University), Sawangi (M), Wardha, Maharasthra
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Introduction: Kapardika (Cypraeamoneta) is one of the animal origin drug mentioned in Rasashastra. According to different texts Kapardika (Cypraeamoneta) is classified under two categories they are Sudha Varga (Calcium component drugs) and Sadharana Rasa Varga (Herbal origin drug) Its medicinal usage is known since Vedic era and was used to treat various ailments effectively. Aim and Objective: Aim of the present study is to collect the formulations containing Kapardika Bhasma (Cypraeamoneta Powder) described in the text Bharat Bhaishajya Ratnakar and find out its therapeutic efficacy. Materials and Methods: All the formulations containing Kapardika bhasma (Cypraeamoneta Powder) are reviewed from all the five volumes of Bharat Bheshaja Ratnakar and again categorized according to its dosage forms. Observation and Results: Total 42 formulations containing Kapardika Bhasma (Cypraeamoneta Powder) have been reviewed which are indicated in Agnimandya (Loss of appetite), Parinamshula (Duodenal ulcer), Grahani (Malabsorption syndrome), Rajaykshma (Tuberculosis), Karnasrava (Ottorhoea), Netraroga (Diseases of the eye), and Sukraksaya (Oligospermia). These formulations are advised to be taken in different dosage forms such as Anjana (Collyrium) Vati (Tablets), Pottali (Bundle) etc. Conclusion: The present work will be valuable in recognition of newer formulations of Kapardika Bhasma (Cypraeamoneta Powder) and their therapeutic applications in various ailments.
Keywords: Bharat bhaishajya ratnakar, duodenal ulcer, kapardika bhasma
|How to cite this article:|
Dukare P, Rathi BJ, Wanjari A, Khan M. Therapeutic indications of formulations of Kapardika Bhasma (Cowrie calx) described in bharat bhaishajya ratnakar. J Indian Sys Medicine 2022;10:251-5
|How to cite this URL:|
Dukare P, Rathi BJ, Wanjari A, Khan M. Therapeutic indications of formulations of Kapardika Bhasma (Cowrie calx) described in bharat bhaishajya ratnakar. J Indian Sys Medicine [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Jan 28];10:251-5. Available from: https://www.joinsysmed.com/text.asp?2022/10/4/251/366515
| Introduction|| |
Ayurveda is the traditional system of Indian medicine. Rasashastra, which has been popular since the Middle Ages, focuses on the use of metals and minerals in therapeutics:,Rasashastra is a one-of-a-kind knowledge system that provides unrivalled databases of affordable, effective, and diverse medication. It makes use of practically every type of matter on the planet. In this regard, under the term Sudhavarga (Calcium drug) there is a part that deals with products of marine origin. Kapardika (Cypre amoneta linn) is identified as the external shell of the sea animal Cypre amoneta linn, is the most popular among traditional practitioners. This is also frequently utilized in the form of Bhasma (Powder) which is Ayurveda’s unique dosage form. Kapardika bhasma (Cypre amoneta linn. Powder) acts in little quantities and can cure diseases which are chronic in nature. In traditional medicine, the Kapardika (Cypre amoneta Linn.) has been used to treat chronic stomach ailments such as dyspepsia, jaundice, enlarged spleen, liver, asthma, and cough. It has also been recorded to be used externally as a caustic in various forms of ointments:,Kapardika (Cypre amoneta Linn.) is also described under Sadharana Rasa (Herbal origin drug) most of the rasa texts:,Kapardika (refers to little convolute glossy shells with variegated hues that are oblong or oval in shape and vary in size: Cowry is a sea snail with a shiny, colorful shell. It lives in shallow water of warm seas. Cowries may be from 0.5 to 6 inches long with a triangular base. The top of the shell looks like a colorful egg and the underside has a long, narrow opening bordered by many small teeth. There are more than 150 kinds of cowries. Some kinds are extremely rare and are worth hundreds of dollars to shell collectors: Chemical cowrie is mainly composed of calcium carbonate CaCO3. There are three types of Kapardika depending on their color as Pita Kapardika which is consider as superior , Sweta Kapardika which is consider as medium and Dhusara Kapardika which is considered as inferior quality:Amongst the three verities mentioned above, the yellow cowrie is the best one. Kapardika is having Katu Rasa, Ushna Virya, Katu Vipaka also having Agnidipana, Pacchana, Vrisya, Grahi and Netrya Karma:Shodhan of Kapardika is doing in the Amla Dravya mainly in Nimbuka Swarasa, Jambir Nimbu Swarasa,Tanduliya Swarasa, Kanji and Jayanti Patra Swarasa. The kapardika are tide in a Pottali and subjected to Swedana in Dolayantra containing Amla Dravya liquid for a period of 3 hrs. Later the drug in the cloth will be washed with warm water and dried and stored as Shuddha Kapardika:After Shodhana (Purification) Shuddha Kapardika are subjected for Marana (incineration) process. By giving 3 Gajputas, white coloured Kapardika Bhasma is obtained:
Kapardika Bhasma is an important constituent of many Ayurvedic formulations described in Ayurveda compendia. These formulations are indicated in the management of a range of diseases Hence the aim of the present study is to collect, and categorized the formulations containing Kapardika Bhasma described in Bharat Bhaeshaj Ratnakar and to explore its therapeutic potential.
Materials and Methods
In the present review, all the formulations containing Kapardika Bhasma are reviewed from all five volumes of Bharat Bheshaja Ratnakar and again categorized according to its dosage forms:
Observation and Result
In the present review total of 42 herbomineral formulations containing Kapardika Bhasma have been reviewed which are indicated in various disorders as shown in [Table 1]. These formulations are advised to be taken in different dosage forms such as powder, tablets, etc. as mentioned in [Figure 1].
| Discussion|| |
The Ayurvedic medicinal formulations preparations i.e. Pharmaceutics is an important part of Ayurveda and were evolved gradually from a simpler form to more complex forms based on herbo and herbomineral combinations. There are several modified pharmaceutical preparations such as Anjana, Pottali etc. are used for therapeutic purpose . Bharat Bhaishajya Ratnakara, one of the notable systematic Ayurveda formulary is a compilation of over 10000 Ayurveda formulations. It comprises five volumes and describes the formulations alphabetically according to the dosage forms. In the present review one such attempt is made to identify the formulations containing Kapardika Bhasma and to recognize its therapeutic utility.
On extensive search, 42 formulations are found which contain Kapardika Bhasma as one of ingredient. Among the 42 formulations are two Anjana Kalpana formulations, two Churna Kalpana formulations, three Pottali Kalpana formulations, and 35 Vati Kalpana formulations. These all formulations are having a different therapeutic potentials and used in diverse disorders such as Agnimandya (Loss of appetite), Parinamshula (Duodenal ulcer), Grahani (Malabsorption syndrome), Rajaykshma (Tuberculosis), Netraroga (Diseases of the eye),Jwara (fever),Kamala (jaundice), Yakrit Vikar (Liver disorders), hyperacidity and Sukraksaya (Oligospermia). These formulations are advised to be taken with specific Anupana (adjuvant) for better therapeutic efficacy. Loknath Rasa is advised to be taken with Navneet, and Amrit Vati, Agnikumar Rasa with warm water. Anuapan is a carrier which helps to carry the drug in the target organ and enhance the therapeutic potential of drugs:.
In Anjana Kalpana (Application of collyrium) medicine is applying in the form of Gutika, Raskriya or Churna (powder) to the inner side of lower lid either by fingertip or by Anjana Shalaka:Garudanjan is a herbo mineral Anjana preparation which consists of seven minerals and seven herbal drugs. It is applied in both eyes in emergency condition when the patient is in altered state of consciousness. This Anjana is indicated in condition of Shoonakshikuta (Swelling in the orbital region), Nidrata (drowsiness):Churna (Powder formulations) term has applied to the powder prepared by using a single drug or a combination of multiple drugs. Particular Churna formulations are formulated by collecting drugs as mentioned in formulations, individually powdered and prepare fine powder by using 85 number sieve and then mixed in a particular proportion: In Bharat Bheshaja Ratnakar there are about 2 Churna formulations are described but no any study is conducted yet on Lobansatvayoga and Varatadiyoga. Pottali is the name given to a consolidated type of medicine. The words Pota, Potta, and Pottam imply “to bind together,” “to gather,” “to condense,” and “to consolidate.” The Pottali Kalpana is well-known for its unique preparation method, unique final product, high strength, modest dosage, and broad therapeutic application. Pottali Kalpa produces a hardened bolus as a final result and it has a particular shape and size: There are total 3 formulation of Pottali kalpana mentioned in BBR. In which Loknath pottali Rasa is a unique Pottali kalpana making the ingredients more bioavailable for quick action and having target reaching capacity. The major ingredients are Kaparda, Parada, Gandhaka, Tankana which are Krumighna, Rasayana, Vyavayi, Vikasi and hence indicated for their antimicrobial properties in treating diseases like Atisara, Grahani, Kshaya, Kasa etc:
Medicines prepared in the form of pills is known as Vati kalpana. These are made up of one or more drugs of plants, animal and mineral origin. Fine powders of medicinal drugs are mixed with water, juices, cow’s urine, milk or honey etc., make a soft mass and converted in various sizes pills or tablets. Blend of semisolid paste of one or more drugs by mechanical machines or by hand in the circular form is called as Vati:There are total 35 formulation of Vati Kalpana present in BBR containing Kapardika Bhasma, in which Vatavidhwansa rasa is herbomineral formulation containing Maricha, Parada, Adraka, Kapardika Bhasma and successfully used in Sandhivata by reliving of Vatadosha:Amrutadi vati is advised in Hikka Shwasa which contains drugs acting on respiratory disorders:Agnikumaro Rasa is a well-known Ayurvedic formulation indicated in the treatment of Jwara (Pyrexia). It contains Vatsanabha (Aconitum) as major and active ingredient and its recommended dose as per Ayurvedic literature is one Ratti (125 mg):.Kaphaketu Rasa is a classical organo mineral preparation used for Prateshayay, Kasa, Shwasa and other respiratory disorders and it shows antihistaminic activity: While the Many Ayurvedic Rasashastra literatures mention Rasa, a common herbo-mineral concoction. There are around 12 Yogas with the same name, each with a different combination of components and quantity. Loknath Rasa has been shown to be useful in the treatment of Ama(Indigested food material) and Agnimandya(Loss of appetite) as well as boosting intestinal motility. It is used to treat Raktapitt(Bleeding disorders), Kasa(Cough) Swash(Cold), Grahani(IBS) Swarakshaya(Horsness of voice) Agnimandya(Loss of appetite) Atisara(Diahorrea)and Vatarakta(Gout) among other disorders: Not a particular study found on Vruhatgagasundaro Rasa, Vaishvanaro pottali Rasa,Shulagajakesari Rasa and Samirshulebhahari Rasa.
Kapardika is having the property to reduce the Tridosha Vitiations hence suggested in different disorders. Those formulations are prescribed for certain ailments, but because of the synergetic impact of each medicine in each formulation, each Ayurvedic formulation has the extra benefit of acting on several levels to provide therapeutic benefits. As a result, they can serve as multiple therapeutics. As previously stated in many illnesses, a large number of formulations have yet to be confirmed about their efficacy. As a result, more research is required.
| Conclusion|| |
Bharat Bheshaja Ratnakar has mentioned about 42 Ayurvedic formulations containing Kapardika Bhasma in different dosage forms which can be used in many disorders. Different dosage forms are concerned with the processing of drugs to change the properties of raw drugs in significant manner for their better absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. In acknowledgment of newer formulations and their therapeutic applications, the current research will be useful. If further such studies are planned with other formulations of Kapardika then it will be boon to the patients.
The author wishes to express his gratitude to DMIMSU for motivating him and providing the essential assistance in producing this post.
Financial support and sponsorship
This study was supported by DMIMS (Deemed to be University) Sawangi (Meghe) Wardha.
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Gupta KL,Chinta S, Reddy KR Importance of anandakanda in the history of Indian alchemy. Bull Ind Inst Hist Med Hyderabad 2006;36:159-66.
Madhavacharya S RaseshwaraDarshana, verses 9/18. In: Umashankhar Sharma Rishi, editor. Varanasi: Choukhamba Vaidya Bhavan; 1964. p. 383.
Gopal R, Vijayakumaran M, venkatesan R, Kathiroli S Marine organisms in Indian medicine and their future prospectus. Nat prod Radi 2008;7:139-145.
Vedhagiri SJ, Ganesan K, Jobe Prabakar PC Spectroscopic investigations of palakari (Cowrie Shell) parpam. J Res Educ Indian Med 2012;8:27-32
Kulkarni D Rasa Ratna Sammuchaya. New Delhi: Laxman Das Publication; 1998:64. p. 66-7.
Garde D, Rathi B, Wanjari A, Rajput D Pharmaceutical standardization of kapardika bhasma prepared by three different varieties. Journal of Indian System of Medicine 2017;5:249.
Kulshrestha M,Sahoo R Anonymus Inventory of Animal Products used in Ayurveda,Siddha and Unani. New Delhi: CCRAS, Dept of AYUSH,Govt of India. p. 422-6.
Kulkarni A Vognabodhini Rasaratna Samucchaya of Vagbhata, Hindi Commentary. 1st ed. New Delhi: Meherchand Lachhinmandas Publication; 1998. p. 69-71.
Sharma S Rasatarangini. 1st ed. Varanasi: pub. Chaukambha Surbharti Prakashan; 2015:12. p. 202.
Vaidya VN, Tatiya AU, Elango A, Kukkupuni SK, Vishnuprasad CN Need for comprehensive standardization strategies for marketed Ayurveda formulations. Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine 2018;9:312-5.
Sharma S Rasatarangini. 1st ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Surbharti Prakashan; 2015. 12/87. p. 202.
Satoskar RS, Bhandarkar SD Pharmacology and Pharmacotherepeutics. Mumbai: Popular Praskahan; 1997. vol. 1.
Shah C Bharat BheshajyaRatnakar, Vol. I to V B. 2nd ed. New Delhi: Jain Publishers Pvt Ltd; 1999.
Rathi B, Rathi R Principals of ethical ayurveda prescription writing in clinical practice: A literature review. Journal of Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences University 2019;14:97.
Bagde A, Ramteke A Critical review of anjanakriya (application of collyrium) in ayurvedic literature. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 8:520-8.
Athulya C,Vijayan V A conceptual study on the anti-toxic action of garudanjana. The Pharma Innovation Journal 2017;6:643-64.
Shelke S, Rathi B Review on dhatryadi churna: An ayurvedic antipyretic polyherbal formulation. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology 2020;14:2.
Sumedhan V, Ratheesh P, Meghna PP A review on Pottali Kalpana. Journal of Ayurveda and Integrated Medical Sciences 2018;3:96-102.
Rao S, Angadi R Review of Loknathrasa. World Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research WJPMR 2021;7:359-63.
Chaudhari MA Review of vati kalpana w.s.r. to sharangdharokta vati kalpana. International Ayurvedic Medical Journal 2017;5: 4470-5.
Padhar B, Jaiman D Evidence based ayurvedic treatment guideline for management of sandhivata (osteo-arthritis). Journal of Natural & Ayurvedic Medicine 2019;3:1-6.
Kapadiya R, Alankruta R, Harisha CR, Shukla VJ Pharmacognostical and pharmaceutical analysis of amrutadivati in the management of tamakshwasa w.s.r. to bronchial asthama. PharmacieGlobale; Roorkee 2014;5:1-4.
Mansoria P, et al
. Evaluation of the acute toxicity of Agnikumara Rasa. International Ayurvedic Medical Journal 2019;4:2030-5. Available from: http://www.iamj.in/posts/images/upload/2030_2035.pdf
Joshi B, Agnihotri P,Joshi A Anti-histaminic activity of Kaphaketu Rasaon histamine induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs. International Journal of New Technology and Research 2:73-4.
Saxena RB Pharmaceutical and Analytical Standardization of Loknathrasa. AYU (An International Quarterly Journal of Research in Ayurveda) 2006;27:99.