|Year : 2023 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 8-13
Pharmacognostical and physicochemical evaluation of gandhakadi yoga vati: An ayurveda herbo-mineral formulation for thalassemia major
Naresh B Chaudhary1, Virendra K Kori1, Sagar M Bhinde1, CR Harisha2, Vinay J Shukla3
1 Department of Kaumarbhritya, Institute of Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
2 Department of Pharmacognosy, Institute of Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
3 Department of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
|Date of Submission||28-Nov-2022|
|Date of Decision||24-Jan-2023|
|Date of Acceptance||04-Feb-2023|
|Date of Web Publication||15-Apr-2023|
Naresh B Chaudhary
Department of Kaumarbhritya, Institute of Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Room No. 62, PG Boys’ Hostel, Opp. Guest House, Jamnagar 361008, Gujarat
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Ayurveda is age-old medical system, practiced in India. Ayurveda medicines are being prepared from natural sources like herbs, animal products, and minerals. Ancient Ayurveda scholars have mentioned various pharmaceutical procedures to make it bioavailable. They also mentioned about various parameters to control the quality and standardize those formulations. But due to globalization and industrialization, it is need of the time to produce medicines in larger scale and to evaluate its quality with currently available tools for the global acceptance of Ayurveda. Gandhakadi Yoga Vati is an herbo-mineral formulation used as an adjuvant in the management of Thalassemia Major. Till date quality data of this formulation is not been evaluated. Aims and Objectives: To analyze the Gandhakadi Yoga Vati through pharmacognostically and physicochemical parameters. Materials and Methods: In this analytical study, preauthenticated raw drugs were procured from pharmacy, ITRA, Jamnagar. Drug was prepared at RSBK department and pharmacy, ITRA, Jamnagar. Organoleptic parameters and microscopic analysis of Vati were done at pharmacognosy department, ITRA. Physicochemical analysis and high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) were carried out at pharmaceutical laboratory, ITRA. Results: Microscopic characteristics of Gandhakadi Yoga Vati showed simple trichome, starch grain, epidermal cells, fibers, parenchymal cell of Agastya Patra (Sesbenia grandiflora Linn.), pitted stone cells, lignified stone cell, trichome, tanin content, prismatic crystal, brown content, spool cells of Vidanga (Embelia ribes Burm.f.), and black debris of Gandhaka. In physicochemical analysis, Ash value was 8.64%w/w, loss on drying was 0.85%w/w, pH was 6.4, acid-insoluble ash value was 2.49% w/w alcohol-soluble extractive was 14.9%w/w, and water-soluble extractive was 5.09%w/w. HPTLC study showed 06 and 07 peaks at 254 and 366 nm wave lengths, respectively. Conclusion: This study generated preliminary data on pharmacognostical, physicochemical parameters, and HPTLC of Gandhakadi Yoga Vati. These fingerprinting can be useful for future researchers to reproduce this formulation.
Keywords: Gandhakadi Yoga Vati, HPTLC, Pharmaceutical analysis, thalassemia major
|How to cite this article:|
Chaudhary NB, Kori VK, Bhinde SM, Harisha C R, Shukla VJ. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical evaluation of gandhakadi yoga vati: An ayurveda herbo-mineral formulation for thalassemia major. J Indian Sys Medicine 2023;11:8-13
|How to cite this URL:|
Chaudhary NB, Kori VK, Bhinde SM, Harisha C R, Shukla VJ. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical evaluation of gandhakadi yoga vati: An ayurveda herbo-mineral formulation for thalassemia major. J Indian Sys Medicine [serial online] 2023 [cited 2023 Jun 7];11:8-13. Available from: https://www.joinsysmed.com/text.asp?2023/11/1/8/374262
| Introduction|| |
Ayurveda medicines are being prepared from natural sources like herbs, animal products, and minerals since age old. Ayurveda has diverse range of pharmaceutical preparation to make these sources bioavailable, and each has its own quality control parameters. During ancient time, medicines use to be prepared for individual or a small group of people for their specific diseases. Hence, standardization parameters given in Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpna are highly subjective and could be performed by treating physicians only. But due to globalization and industrialization, it is the need of the time to produce medicines in larger scale and to evaluate its quality with currently available tools for its global acceptance. Because the expected therapeutic effect from an administered drug can be achieved only if the quality of the finished formulation. Quality of the finished drug is basically depending on the quality and genuinity of the raw materials and precision in pharmaceutical procedures. Hence, the pharmacognosy to assess the genuineness of raw material along with physicochemical analysis to assess the aptness of pharmaceutical procedure and are of prime important to evaluate any ayurveda drug. These evaluations become more important when medicine contains some metal or minerals.
Gandhakadi Yoga Vati (GYV) is an herbo-mineral formulation used as an adjuvant in the management of Thalassemia Major [Table 1]. It is a modified form of the drug suggested for Loha Sevanajanya Vikara Prashamana (iron overloading) in Ayurveda Prakasha. This is being used as iron chelator to decrease the iron overload. Gandhakadi Yoga Vati was evaluated earlier for its chelation effect in Iron Sorbitol-induced iron overload in albino rats by Yadav et al. The preclinical studies of Gandhakadi Yoga had shown promising results as iron chelator., As this formulation contains mineral (Gandhaka) in it, it is important to evaluate for its quality control parameters after its pharmaceutical preparation. Till today, quality control data on Gandhakadi Yoga Vati are not available in scientific domain. Hence, this study was aimed to generate preliminary data of Gandhakadi Yoga Vati through pharmacognostically and physicochemical parameters.
| Materials and Methods|| |
Type of the study: Analytical study.
Collection, Identification, and Authentication of Raw Drugs
Preauthenticated raw Gandhaka (natural sulfur) and dried fruits of Vidanga (Embelia ribes Burm. f.) were procured from the Pharmacy, ITRA, Jamnagar. Gandhaka Shodhana was carried out at RSBK dept., ITRA. Fresh leaves of Agastya (Sesbenia grandiflora Linn.) were purchased from local farmer and authenticated for quality and purity by the experts of Pharmacognosy laboratory, ITRA, Jamnagar.
GYV were prepared at the department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpna and pharmacy ITRA, Jamnagar, by following Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) of Vati preparation.
Colour, taste, odor, and touch of GYV were recorded for its organoleptic characteristics by researchers.
For microscopic analysis, two Vati were crushed, and small quantity from this powder was dissolved in distilled water. Few drops of this were spread on a glass slide and covered with a cover slip and extra water was removed with filter paper. Microscopic examination was done with the prepared slide first without staining and then stained with Pluroglucinol and concentrated HCl under Carl–Zeiss trinocular microscope. Photomicrographs were taken by using Carl–Zeiss trinocular research microscope attached with camera. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (API) standards of individual drugs were used for authentication.
Physicochemical analysis of GYV was carried out at Pharmaceutical Laboratory, ITRA, Jamnagar For its hardness, uniformity of weight, loss on drying (LOD), ash value, acid-insoluble ash value, pH value, alcohol-soluble extractive, and water-soluble extractive parameters.
High-performance thin-layer chromatography
High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) was carried out at the pharmaceutical chemistry Laboratory, ITRA, Jamnagar. It was carried out with methanolic extract of Gandhakadi Yoga Vati on precoated silica gel GF-254 aluminum plate as 5 mm bands, 5 mm apart, and 1 cm from the edge of the plates, by means of a Camag Linomat V sample applicator fitted with a 100 µL Hamilton syringe. The mobile phase used was toluene: ethyl acetate (9:1 V/V). The plates were developed in Camag twin trough chamber (20 × 10 cm), and spots were detected in short UV (254 nm), long UV (366 nm) followed by photo documentation, and the images were transformed to densitogram using RStudio-1.1.463. The retention factor was calculated by using the formula Rf = distance traveled by solute/distance traveled by solvent.
| Results|| |
Characters like color, taste, odor, and touch of GYV are mentioned in [Table 2].
Microscopic characteristics of GYV showed simple trichome, starch grain, epidermal cells, fibers, parenchymal cell of Agastya; pitted stone cells, lignified stone cell, trichome, tanin content, prismatic crystal, brown content, spool cells of Vidanga; and black debris of Gandhaka [Figure 1].
|Figure 1: Microphotographs of Gandhakadi Yoga Vati. (A) Simple trichome, (B) starch grain, (C) epidermal cells, (D) fibers, (E) parenchymal cell of Agastya, (F) black debris of Gandhaka, (G) pitted stone cells, (H) lignified stone cell, (I) trichome, (J) brown content, (K) tanin content, (L) prismatic crystal, (M) spool cells of Vidanga|
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The observations of this study are presented in [Table 3].
High-Performance Thin-layer Chromatography
The results of HPTLC are reported in [Table 4], and densitogram of the same is shown in [Figure 2].
|Figure 2: Densitogram of HPTLC of GYV. Densitogram: wavelengths, short UV (254 nm), long UV (366 nm)|
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| Discussion|| |
This study has generated preliminary quality control data of Gandhakadi Yoga Vati (GYV), which will be helpful for future researchers and clinicians to replicate the same drug with same quality standards.
It was confirmed by microscopic evaluation that the ingredients of GYV, i.e., Gandhaka, Vidanga , and Agatsya were genuine. The presence of microscopic characters of all the ingredients in samples of GYV infers that phytochemicals and microscopic structure of the raw drugs remains unchanged during the pharmaceutical processes.
In this study, Gandhaka Shodhana was done in Goghrita (Cow ghee) and Godugdha (cow milk).Gandhaka is soluble in fat, and it contain arsenic as a toxic substance, which can be detoxified with hydrocarbons of Goghruta and Godugdha.
Pharmaceutical analysis helps to identify physicochemical constitution of the formulation and application of chromatographic techniques aid in the recognition of number of phytochemical and in turn helps to assess the purity by comparing with the standard ones.
Loss on drying was found to be 0.85%w/w indicating the percentage of moisture present in the product. Hygroscopic material absorbs moisture from the atmosphere. In the presence of suitable temperature, moisture will lead to the activation of enzymes and hence provides suitable condition for the proliferation of living organism. Hence, more than required moisture contents of the formulation may affect the quality by reducing its shelf life. Minimum loss on drying found in this study indicates it has minimum moisture, which could be considered as good to have longer shelf life.
In this study, ash value was 8.64 %. Despite the presence of at least 33% of Gandhaka in this drug, ash value is 8.64%, which indicates that major part of Gandhaka became organic after its classical Shodhana. Ash value of this study is also in line with previous researcher’s finding, i.e., 7.5%w/w.
Acid-insoluble ash was found 2.49%w/w. Here, the total ash was treated with hydrochloric acid to find out the percentage of acid-insoluble ash.
pH value was found to be 6.4. Pharmacokinetics of a drug depends upon its pH. The pH of GYV indicated that it is slightly acidic. Drug ionization level and lipid solubility are two crucial variables that affect how quickly medications are absorbed from the GI tract and how easily they move through cellular membranes. In contrast to strong acids or bases, drugs that are weak organic acids are typically in unionized form, soluble in lipids, and easily absorbed across cellular membranes.
Extractive values were found almost same when processed with water and alcohol. These parameters can be useful in laying standards for this particular formulation.
If the same solvent and stationary phase are applied, the Rf value for a specific formulation remains always the same. HPTLC data of this study can be used as fingerprinting for the Gandhakadi Yoga Vati having the same type of raw material, prepared with same method at same climatical condition.
Limitations of this Study
This study was conducted to generate preliminary quality control data of Gandhakadi Yoga Vati and hence parameters were not evaluated for three batches. The data generated in this study can be generalized for the condition having same source of raw drugs, pharmaceutical procedure, climatic condition, and same method of evaluation.
| Conclusion|| |
This study generated preliminary data on pharmacognostical, physicochemical parameters of Gandhakadi Yoga Vati. This fingerprinting could be useful for future researchers to reproduce this formulation.
The authors express their sincere gratitude to Prof. A. B. Thakar, Hon’ble Director, ITRA; Prof. H. A. Vyas, Dean, ITRA; and Prof. B. J. Patgiri, HOD, Dept. of RSBK, ITRA for providing the facilities, kind support, and encouragement during the work. The authors are also thankful to Dr. Ushnesh Bhat, Pharmaceutical Chemistry Laboratory, ITRA for valuable technical inputs during this work.
Financial Support and Sponsorship
Financial support and sponsorship were received from ITRA, Jamnagar.
Conflicts of Interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]