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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-September 2022
Volume 10 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 153-218

Online since Friday, September 30, 2022

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EDITORIAL  

NCISM new curriculum: A revolutionary step in Ayurveda education Highly accessed article p. 153
Gaurav R Sawarkar
DOI:10.4103/jism.jism_81_22  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Pharmacognostical and phytochemical standardization on stem bark of Mahonia nepalensis DC.: An extrapharmacopoeial plant Highly accessed article p. 155
Kiran Paudel, Aku Ramamurthy, Gaurav Sharma
DOI:10.4103/jism.jism_52_22  
Introduction: The tribal people cure hepatic-related disorders with the stem bark of Mahonia nepalensis DC. Aim: The aim of the study was to do Investigation of the Microscopic and Macroscopic Characteristics, Pharmacognostical, Physiochemical Parameters, and Thin Layer Chromatography of Stem Bark of Mahonia nepalensis DC. Materials and Methods: Mahonia nepalensis DC. were collected from natural habitat and authenticated by the proper plant authentication centers. The cell composition of TS slices was examined after they had been dyed and mounted. The powders of the sample drug were studied organoleptically. The Extractive values and Ash values were represented in Pie-chart form designed by using Microsoft Excel. Results: The Bark of the Mahonia nepalensis DC. is brown in color externally but the inner side is yellow with features of general anatomy of dicot stem on transverse section. The pharmacognosy and phytochemical investigations of the stem bark of Mahonia nepalensis DC shows presence of starch grain, intermedullary rays as diagnostic characters. Mayer’s reagent test and Dragon Droff’s reagent test are positive in the test signifies that the present of Alkaloids and TLC values were evaluated. Conclusion: The key diagnostic characteristics of Mahonia nepalensis DC’s stem were identified from its pharmacognosy. The stem of Mahonia nepalensis DC was authenticated and subjected to quality control using phytochemical tests and TLC, which were derived and described.
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In-vivo evaluation of chondroprotective activity of Ariflex tablet in comparison with aceclofenac tablet and chondroitin sulfate/glucosamine (CG) in monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis in rats p. 164
Sanjay U Nipanikar, Manohar J Patil, Prasad V Kadam
DOI:10.4103/jism.jism_49_22  
Background: Degenerative changes in a joint subsequent to alterations in cartilage formation equilibrium lead to development of osteoarthritis (OA). Aims: Chondroprotective activity of Ariflex tablet (a polyherbal formulation) was evaluated in comparison with chondroitin/glucosamine and aceclofenac in monosodium iodoacetate-induced OA in Wistar rat models. Materials and Methods: A total of 42 animals were divided into seven groups, viz., four control groups [negative, positive, standard and vehicle controls] and three test groups [low, medium, and high dosages]. Animals in seven groups were treated with various study drugs for the period of 28 days. In this study period, measurement of body weight and knee joint swelling was done periodically. Gait score was recorded on the last day, and histopathological examination of joints was done after sacrificing the animals. Results: Chondroprotective activity of medium and high dose of Ariflex tablet was comparable to that of aceclofenac and superior to chondroitin + glucosamine combination. In few rats of medium and high dose of Ariflex tablet groups, chondrocyte regeneration and formation of new blood vessels were seen, which indicated possibility of chondrocyte regeneration activity of Ariflex tablet. Conclusion: Ariflex tablet possesses significant chondroprotective activity comparable to aceclofenac and superior to chondroitin and glucosamine combination. There was a possibility of chondrocyte regeneration activity of Ariflex tablet, which can be confirmed by conducting another study with long-term treatment.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Scientific aspects of Janapadodhwansa Vyadhi (epidemic disorders) according to Ayurveda in the context to Jwara—An epidemiological and Trisutra-based approach p. 176
Aishwarya A Joglekar, Mahesh K Vyas, Meera K Bhojani
DOI:10.4103/jism.jism_30_22  
Background: Ayurveda was oriented with the management of various epidemic-like situations. Acharya Charaka has explained the concept of Janapadodhwansa (~the destruction of human community at a large scale) in Vimanasthana of the treatise Charaka Samhita. The concept of Janapadodhwansa is a mirror of the disease origin, spread, and control in the population. Aim: The aim was to critically analyze the concepts of Janapadodhwansa and epidemiology in the purview of Ayurveda and contemporary research. Materials and Methods: The concepts of epidemiology were critically analyzed in the purview of the concept of Janapadodhwansa in Ayurveda. The robust search of literature from research databases, published literature, and contemporary sciences was done to incorporate the related aspects. Observations: The major Hetu (~etiological factors) in the manifestation of Janapododhwansa can be correlated with the environmental, host, and agent components of the epidemiological triad. The four Hetu namely Vayu (~ air), Jala (~water), Desha (~environmental pollution), and Kaala (~seasonal impact) focus largely on the environment aspect of epidemiological triad, which includes host, agent, and environment, whereas the Adharma (behavioral factors) deals with the host and agent aspects. The management of epidemics explained in Ayurveda covers all the aspects of physical, mental, social, and spiritual health facilitating the promotion and preservation of health during such conditions. Jwara (~fever) is described as a condition representing the primary presentation of Janapadodhwansa, whereas other modalities such as Rasayana Sevana, Sadvritta are also rightfully discussed. Conclusions: The aspects of origin and spread of diseases like Jwara (~fever) as mentioned under the umbrella of Janapadodhwansa are similar and applicable to concepts of epidemiological triad and epidemiology in general.
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Perspectives of Lavana in Charaka samhita: a review p. 186
Archana Prabhakar, Galib Ruknuddin, Pradeep K Prajapati
DOI:10.4103/jism.jism_29_22  
Salt plays an important role in maintaining normal physiology of the human body health. Salts are referred as Lavana in Ayurveda that are vital ingredients in food and in medicine as well. Traditionally, Ayurveda classics distinguish several varieties of Lavanas. Specific salts have been described along with respective properties and actions. Charaka samhita, a familiar text for medical treatment, has advocated varieties of Lavanas and their applications in multiple pathological conditions. However, the information is found scattered across the classical texts. The current review is an attempt to screen this classical treatise and to compile information pertaining to utilization of various Lavanas for medicinal and other purposes referred. Screening through the classic revealed description of about 16 different Lavanas and about 250 compound formulations with salt as a component, inferring that different types of salts have specific action on health and/or disease. Judicious consumption of Lavana is repeatedly advised, and it is said that Lavanas produce good results when used properly (aapaatbhdra prayogasamsaadgunyaat), whereas injudicious use may cause exacerbation of various doshas leading to the manifestation of diseases. Though an important component of life cycle, salts are to be used in limited quantities judiciously.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Stanyakshya (insufficient lactation) and its management by an Ayurveda formulation: A case report p. 192
Upasana Sharma, Sushila Sharma
DOI:10.4103/jism.jism_5_22  
Introduction: Human milk is an indispensable need for infant survival. As it contains thousands of micronutrients, macronutrient, bioactive components, immunological factors that gives immense protection against infection and inflammation. In Ayurveda classics, Stanya (breast milk) has given a very pivotal place for baby. But currently many mothers are not fortunate enough to feed their new born due to deficient support from their health. After reviewing Ayurveda classics, it can be concluded that major cause of lactation insufficiency in Sutikaawastha(puerperium) is Agnimandya and Dhatu/Updhatukshaya. For such conditions, judicial selection of drugs is very important, as in Ayurveda number of Stanyajanana and Stanyavardhaka drugs (galactogogues) are mentioned for initiationand augmentation of milk production. Materials and Methods: Following is a case report of a 32-year-old female who was not able to feed her baby properly even after seven days of normal delivery. She was treated with a simple decoction of DeepenaPaachana drugs; Shatapushpa, Dhanyaka, KrishnaJeeraka etc. Results were assessed on the basis of subjective parameters; mother - Stanyapravriti in a day, baby - Shishurodana, Bharavridhi, Nidra etc. All the medications were given for 42 days and all the parameters were assessed and found with in normal limit. Conclusion: Main cause for insufficient milk production in this case and many more like this is Agnimandya at the level of Jatharagni as well as Dhatwagni also. By correcting condition of Agni,one can easily manage such cases, there is no need to give Stanyavardhana drugs to all the patients.
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Ayurveda treatment for granulomatosis with polyangiitis: A case report p. 196
Santosh K Bhatted, Diksha N Kabra
DOI:10.4103/jism.jism_41_22  
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) was formerly known as Wegener’s granulomatosis. As its name implies, the disease is associated with a necrotizing granulomatous inflammation with vasculitis of small and medium blood vessels induced by antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA). Here, we present a case of a 42-year-old woman with severe arthralgia associated with fever and obstructive uropathy. Blood investigations revealed a high level of C-ANCA, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and reduced hemoglobin level. She had a history of rheumatic heart disease in the childhood. The patient was treated with Ayurvedic oral drugs for 3 months. After 1 month of follow-up period, the patient showed a significant improvement in presenting symptoms as well as laboratory investigations. There was a significant reduction in swelling and tenderness over both ankle joints. Presently, the patient is stable with Ayurvedic medications. The case study shows a ray of hope toward the management of GPA with holistic Ayurveda medications with satisfactory outcome and contentment of the patient. However, more studies should be observed for definite conclusion.
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Non-invasive management of suppurative skin nodule (metastatic cutaneous abscess): a suspected case of tuberculous gumma: “a case report.” p. 200
  Reetu, Divya Kajaria
DOI:10.4103/jism.jism_35_22  
The paradigm of cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADRs) due to the resurgence of Dushi-visha (~cumulative poison) is less reported. Clinical evidence of Dushi-visha is not commonly diagnosed in the clinics. This is the era of polypharmacy; the long duration of medication along with a multi-therapeutic approach causes drug intolerance and complicates with reduced assimilation. Improper elimination causes an increased concentration of these medicines in the plasma and produces toxic side effects. These cumulative endotoxins are termed as Dushi-visha in Ayurveda. A 60-year-old male diagnosed with abdominal tuberculosis had undergone anti-tubercular treatment and suffered from pyogenic abscess over back, and rectal area, around the umbilical area. Pus culture isolated coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. In due course of time, the patient took treatment but abscess continued to develop over different parts of the body. This is a suspected case of tuberculous gumma based on clinical presentation and history of the disease, and according to Ayurveda, this is a case of Dushi-visha. The classical treatment of an abscess is focussed on incision and drainage, but this case was handled with Vishaghna chikitsa (~anti-toxin treatment) and other potential treatments considering the resurgence of Dushi-visha without any surgical intervention. Many conditions, which generally seem idiopathic due to lack of proper history, may be due to reactivation of Dushi-visha. This case report opens up the way to clinically identify and potentially treat the condition with Ayurveda.
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Ayurved management of a case of intensive Dadru (dermatophytosis)—A case report p. 205
Medha C Lakkawar, Pratima R Gaikwad, Anand B More, Shalini Rai
DOI:10.4103/jism.jism_46_22  
Introduction: Dermatophytosis (tinea) infections are superficial fungal diseases caused by dermatophytes, a fungus genus that penetrates and grows in dead keratin leading to reddish-colored erythematous cutaneous eruptions in circular lesions presenting with itching. If neglected, fungal infections are more likely to come back and can cause the emergence of more severe conditions. Relapses and recurrences demonstrate that the pathogenic organism is not simply eradicated, demanding more research to create new therapeutic options. Numerous medications used in Ayurveda are thought to have the Krimighna effect, which can result in a more effective course of therapy. Dermatophytosis can be simulated with Dadru Kushtha because the clinical characteristics of the disease are more closely related to those of dermatophytosis. Materials and Methods: This case report documents the case of a 37-year-old female patient with complaints of red circular patches and elevated edges over genitals, groin, flanks, axilla, and forehead regions with severe itching diagnosed with Dadru Kushtha. The case was intervened with Ayurvedic Shaman (pacifying therapy) and Bahirparimarjana chikitsa (external therapy). Result: A significant reduction was observed in Kandu, Daha, Raga, number and size of Mandala, and Pidaka after treatment and after follow-up. Conclusion: Dermatophytosis can be successfully treated with Ayurvedic oral and topical treatments, dietary and lifestyle limitations, and personal hygiene.
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SHORT COMMUNICATIONS Top

Report of national webinar on reverse pharmacology p. 211
Bharat Rathi, Rajkumar Gupta
DOI:10.4103/jism.jism_69_22  
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Transitional curriculum (foundation course) for batch 2021–2022: Report p. 215
Amol Madhav Deshpande, Gaurav Sawarkar
DOI:10.4103/jism.jism_80_22  
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