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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-September 2021
Volume 9 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 151-212

Online since Tuesday, September 28, 2021

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EDITORIAL  

Role of virtual learning in Ayurveda education p. 151
Gaurav Sawarkar
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_76_21  
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

A review on the pharmacological properties of Evolvulus alsinoides (Linn) p. 153
Bharathi Kathirvel, Syed I Kalibulla, Velayuthaprabhu Shanmugam, Vijaya A Arumugam
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_8_21  
Background: Evolvulus alsinoides (Linn) is a perennial herb found throughout India that belongs to the family of Convolvulaceae. Shankhpushpi was traditionally used in Unani and Ayurveda. Shankhpushpi was used in the Medhya Rasyana (nervine tonic) as a brain and memory tonic. Traditionally, Shankhpushpi has been used as a memory enhancer, a sedative; for antianxiety; as an antiepileptic, anthelmintic, and anticonvulsant; and against leukoderma. Aim: The objective of this review is to summarize the phytochemical constituents, traditional uses, ethnomedicinal uses, and pharmacological properties of E. alsinoides L. Materials and Methods: The articles regarding E. alsinoides L. were collected using keywords such as E. alsinoides L.; pharmacological activities and traditional usage were obtained from accredited scientific databases such as Pubmed, Nature, Wiley, Springer, and ScienceDirect. Results and Conclusion: Based on current observations, a literature review suggested that the E. alsinoides L. may possess pharmacological properties such as wound healing, hepatoprotective activity, cardioprotective property, antidiabetic activity, memory and learning, and neuroprotective activity.
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A review article on Ahara Vidhi Vidhana (Rules for consuming food) in consonance with Charaka Samhita p. 161
Raveendran Nair Kumari Lekha Jinu Sankar, Lalchand Harjpal, Rupendra Chandrakar, Shrikant Naik
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_31_21  
Introduction: It is not just the quantity or quality of food that determines the maintenance of health but also the way of consuming food. The digestion, absorption, and assimilation of food are complex procedures where physical, physiological, social, and emotional factors play a critical role. For achieving complete benefits of food, one should also follow certain rules as told in Ayurveda regarding what, when, where, and how the food should be consumed. Objectives: To evaluate and prepare data regarding various dietary and dining rules (Ahara Vidhi Vidhana) recorded in Ayurveda texts, along with their design and utility under the purview of Charaka Samhita. Materials and Methods: For this Ayurveda books such as Charaka Samhita, Susrutha Samhita, Ashtanga Sangraha, Ashtanga Hridaya, Sharangadhara Samhita, Bhavaprakasha, and Yogaratnakara were reviewed for gaining information regarding dietetic rules said in Ayurveda and the concept has been presented while keeping the view of Charaka Samhita at the center. Observations: The rules are divided into dietary rules and dining rules. The first one explains what food should be consumed depending on the quality of the food and the condition of the person. The latter one deals with the way the food should be consumed, which has direct effects on hygiene of the food and the condition of the mind. Conclusion: The findings from the review suggests that by not following these rules, it is understood that tan individual may land up in a sea of many diseases and following them will benefit the overall health.
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A brief review of Rasaratnasamucchaya of Manikyadeva Suri: an Indian alchemical treatise of the medieval period p. 166
Chandrashekhar Y Jagtap, Dhirajsingh S Rajput, Rohit Gokarn
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_49_21  
Several alchemical treatises were written in the early Medieval period (800–1300 A.D.). The majority of these texts are from Hindu cult, and some are from Buddhism. During this period, seers from Jain cult were also seen as contributing to the field of alchemy. One of very few such texts from Jain alchemy is Rasaratnasamucchaya of Manikyadeva Suri (RRSMS) (thirteenth century A.D.), which is not available in the market nowadays but was found on the website in PDF form. RRSMS, written in Sanskrit language and edited by Sikdar JC, is reviewed briefly in the present work. RRSMS, containing three chapters, is a precise treatise among the available ancient literature on Indian alchemy; it throws light on the state of Indian expertise in the field of alchemy and medicine and sidelight on the social beliefs, diets, various diseases, and their herbo-mineral remedies used during this period. It provides useful information of various kinds of minerals, metals, and herbs with their complex formulations, the different apparatus used in them, and measuring systems such as weight. Various procedures and alchemical preparations of mercury, iron, copper, gold, silver, and other metals and minerals are suggested as potent medicines in different ailments. Thus, it can be concluded that a mass of chemical information on Rasayanavidya (alchemy), metallurgy, and mineralogy, along with the knowledge of Ayurveda, was accumulated during the period of the author. Thus, it is the dire need of the time to bring it out by translating it to the regional languages and accepting commentaries from the greats of Rasashastra for the welfare of the society.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Quantitative analysis of tannins, alkaloids, phenols, and flavonoids in Ficus semicordata leaf, stem, stem bark, root, and fruit powder p. 171
Shashi Gupta, Rabinarayan Acharya, Rakesh V Gamit, Vinay J Shukla
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_16_21  
Introduction: Ficus semicordata Buch.-Ham. ex Sm. (Syn. Ficus cunia Buch.- Ham. ex Roxb.) of familyMoraceae, is one of the plants used by the folklore of Odisha for medicinal purposes. Traditional healers use the plant’s leaf, stem, stem bark, root, and fruit to treat jaundice, stomach disorders, skin diseases, and other ailments. The present research article explores the quantitative estimation of tannins, alkaloids, phenols, and flavonoids of leaf, stem, stem bark, root, and fruit powder of Ficus semicordata, as these are responsible for antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and other activities. Materials and Methods: The plant and its various useful parts, after through identification and authentication, were collected from the Gandhamardana hills in Paikamal, Odisha. Quantitative estimation of different parts was performed following standard procedures. Results: Quantitative estimation revealed the presence of maximum tannin in stem bark followed by leaf; maximum alkaloid in fruit followed by leaf; maximum phenol in stem followed by root; and maximum flavonoid content in stem followed by root. Quantitative analysis revealed the presence of tannin and alkaloid in all the samples, which plays a significant role oxidative defence, antimalarial, anticancer, cholinomimetic, vasodilatory, analgesic, antibacterial, and antihyperglycemic activities. Conclusion: Quantitative estimation revealed the presence of tannin and alkaloid in all the parts of F. semicordata.
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Identification of adulterants of Terminalia arjuna bark from market samples through a pharmacognostical study p. 175
Polepalli Mallikarjuna Rao, KL Virupaksha Gupta
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_24_21  
Background: Pharmacognostical parameters, namely macroscopic and microscopic techniques, are very important in the identification of drugs. The macroscopic and microscopic feature of medicinal plants is believable, accurate and involves less cost. So, the study of the morphology and the organoleptic nature of drugs is undertaken using highly sophisticated modern techniques. In Ayurveda, Arjuna bark is an important drug for the treatment of heart disorders and other diseases. There is a great demand for Arjuna bark in the market, and it is very prone to getting adulterated. To find out the correct identity of Arjuna bark from adulterants with the help of pharmacognostical techniques, the present study was undertaken. Materials and Methods: The Arjuna bark was obtained from the source tree and from four raw drug markets of the capital cities of south India. These five Arjuna bark samples were considered for analyzing their organoleptic characteristics; microscopic examination, polarization, fluorescence microscopic examination, powder microscopy, and thin layer chromatography (TLC) of the drug were used for authentication. Results: The Arjuna bark collected from the source tree and the market samples showed the same presentations, thus the market samples were acceptable. It is also found that the bark of the tree Terminalia paniculata is used as an adulterant in a negligible quantity. Conclusion: The present study reveals that, the chances of adulteration for T. arjuna are very less.
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Knowledge, attitude, and practice of Ayurveda pharmacists toward pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reaction reporting: a cross-sectional study p. 181
Raghavendra Naik, MN Shubhashree, Chandini Chandrasekharan, Sulochana Bhat
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_19_21  
Background: Reporting adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is an important part of pharmacovigilance practice. Considering the significance of this area, the Ministry of AYUSH has introduced a new Central Sector scheme for promoting pharmacovigilance of Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homoeopathy (ASU&H) drugs. Being key health‑care professionals, physicians, pharmacists, technicians, and nurses have immense responsibility in effective implementation of pharmacovigilance programs through the surveillance and reporting of ADRs. Objective: The present study was planned with an objective to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of Ayurveda pharmacists toward pharmacovigilance and ADR reporting. Materials and Methods: A total of 22 pretested questions about KAP regarding ADRs and pharmacovigilance in a Google form were made available to 170 Ayurveda pharmacists at their workplace by e‑mail. Results: In the present study, total, 80 responses were received, yielding a response rate of 47%. Most of the participants (81.5%) had knowledge about the pharmacovigilance program for ASU&H drugs and also the location of their nearest pharmacovigilance center. At the same time, 34.6% among them were not aware that a specific format is available for reporting ADRs and only 42% had the knowledge that the Ministry of AYUSH is monitoring the pharmacovigilance program for ASU&H drugs in India. However, most of them (95.1%) thought that it was their responsibility to report ADRs and 92.6% of the participants wanted to make ADR reporting mandatory to pharmacists. More than half of the participants (55.6%) had come across ADRs at their workplace, and the majority of them (72.8%) had reported them. More than half of the pharmacists (51.9%) who were involved in the program revealed that they had faced problems while reporting ADRs at their workplace. Conclusion: Even though there was a positive attitude toward ADR reporting, limited knowledge about the importance of the program needed to be addressed through educational initiatives, regular sensitization, and awareness programs.
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Prevalence of Chittodvega (anxiety disorder) symptoms in Indian village of Nagnur in Telangana: a cross-sectional study p. 187
Manjiri A Ranade
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_20_21  
Introduction: Charaka has described Chittodvega (anxious state of mind) as Manas Dosha Vicar (mental disorders). The signs and symptoms described by charaka are very much similar to an anxious state of mind. Still, the studies done in Ayurveda to assess the prevalence of Chittodvega have used modern definitions of Chittodvega. Hence it is suggested that assessing the prevalence of Chittodvega based on Acharya Charaka symptomatology and assigning a numerical rating scale (NRS) to it. Materials and Methods: This is a community-based cross-sectional study done in the Nagnur Village in Karimnagar District in Telangana. The symptoms described by Charka were tested on a 10-point Likert NRS. The NRS less than 4 is considered mild Chittodvega, 4–7 is considered moderate Chittodvega, and more than 7 is considered severe Chittodvega. The data thus obtained were analyzed. Results: Chittodvega was equally distributed among various age groups and different sociodemographic status among 100 study participants. The prevalence of Chittodvega assessed by different symptomatology varied between 16% and 55%. Nidra Nasha (lack of sleep) and Krodha (anger) were the most common symptoms, whereas Udvega (distress) was the least common symptom. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of Chittodvega symptoms in the rural population. There is an urgent need to tackle this hidden problem in the population, as it can burden normal living beings. Our study gives an insight into making decisions regarding the need for agencies to make targeted efforts to tackle this rarely explored but very common mental health issue.
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A survey among Ayurveda wholesalers and retailers in Pune city for understanding the demand for Ayurvedic medicines during the COVID-19 pandemic p. 191
Rasika Kolhe, Reshmi Pushpan, Goli P Prasad, Arun Gurav, N Srikanth
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_42_21  
Background: After the outbreak of Covid-19, a set of guidelines for boosting immunity and self-care measures were promoted by the Ayurveda, Yoga, Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha Sowa Riga, and Homeopathy (AYUSH) department. Pune has surpassed many metro cities of India and is recognized as one of the worst-hit places of Covid-19. Ayurveda is very popular among the citizens of Pune, but there is a lack of systematic data regarding the demand for Ayurveda products and the impact of the pandemic on the sales of Ayurveda medicines. Objective: This survey was planned to collect information from Ayurveda medicine retailers regarding the trends in the usage and demand for Ayurveda medicines among the citizens of Pune in the background of Covid-19. Materials and Methods: It was a semi-structured questionnaire-based survey study consisting of 43 questions to assess the demand for Ayurveda medicines during the Covid-19 pandemic in Pune city. The study was conducted from August 2020 to September 2020, and the respondents were selected by the convenience sampling method. Data were collected from a total of 33 respondents (retailers and wholesalers of Ayurveda medicine). Analysis: The data of the completed questionnaire were systematically summarized in Microsoft excel sheet 2007, and descriptive analysis, including percentages, was used. Result: The survey shows that certain raw herbs such as Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L.), Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers), and finished products such as AYUSH Kwatha (Formulation to be prepared as a decoction), Chyavanprasha were in high demand during the Covid-19 outbreak. However, the demand for Amritarishta, Guduchi Ghana Vati, and Ashwagandha tablet was also high. Conclusion: These preliminary data of the survey study demonstrate the need for conducting similar studies in larger sample sizes across the country, which would enable the concerned authorities to frame policies.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Management of spondylosis-induced sciatica (Gridhrasi) with variation of Basti Dravya as per the Avastha of the disease: a case study p. 196
Neelam Kaalia, Chanchal Aggarwal, Santosh K Bhatted
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_95_20  
Background: Improper sitting posture in office or continuous work in one posture and overexertion, lifting heavy weights, and jerking movements during traveling—all these factors create undue pressure and stress injury to the spine and play an important role in producing low back pain (LBP). Several low back conditions can cause sciatica, and lumbar disk degeneration is one of them. Based on the clinical symptoms, it can be correlated with Gridhrasi described in Ayurveda. Aim: The aim of this study was to treat a patient of Vata Kaphaja Gridhrasi on the basis of Avastha of Doshas with the help of Panchakarma treatment. Materials and Methods: This is a single case study of a 42-year-old female patient with complaints of severe acute pain in the lower back radiating to B/L lower limbs associated with a tingling sensation, a burning sensation in the upper and lower phalanges, and stiffness in joints for one month, causing difficulty in sitting and standing. She was treated by using Snehana, Svedana, and Basti Chikitsa along with Shamana Aushadha for three months in total. Assessment was done on BT (0th day), AT (31st day), and two follow-ups (61st day and 90th day) on the basis of VAS pain (Ruk), VAS stiffness (Stambha), fingertip to floor test, fasciculation (Spandana), straight leg raising (SLR) test by goniometer, femoral stretch, LBOS scale, and Maine Seattle Back Questionnaire for QoL. Result: The patient showed significant relief in VAS score for pain and stiffness, fingertip to floor distance was reduced significantly. Improvement was noticed in fasciculation and SLR test after treatment of one month.
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Influence of psychiatric comorbidity on patient with Switra (vitiligo) p. 201
Amin Hetalben, Vivek Chayal
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_5_21  
Background: As per Ayurveda, Switra is the skin disorders of depigmentation of localized or whole body. The disease is somatic in nature which affects the psychology of the patient with chronicity. The patient with Switra experiences severe psychological and social problems. Sattvavajaya (psychological methods) is one among the three principal treatment modalities that is specially designed for treating psychological disorders. Aim: The current case will discuss the psychological aspect of Switra in the early remission of disease as per Ayurveda in terms of Sattavavajaya Chikitsa. Materials and Methods: Sattavavajaya Chikitsa combined with Yukti Vyapashraya Chikitsa (physicopharmacological) was used for four months of treatment. In present study, Avalgujadi lepa (as Yuktivyapashraya Chikitsa) and counseling (as Sattvavajaya Chikitsa) were administered. Result: The present case demonstrates clinical promising results in re-pigmentation without developing new areas of de-pigmentation. The case was not uncommon but it reflects the importance of the psychological problem in Switra. The present case supports the psychological aspect concern with Switra and signifies that psychological management can also give early management. Conclusion: Satvavajaya Chikitsa shows remarkable improvement in the immediate recovery of Switra along with Yukti Vyapashraya Chikitsa.
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Efficacy of ayurveda treatment modalities in the management of hypothyroidism: a case report p. 206
Jitendra Varsakiya, Divyarani Kathad, Ritu Kumari
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_39_21  
Hypothyroidism is a metabolic disorder resulting from insufficient synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are one of the key factors for the maintenance of metabolism. India has a high prevalence of hypothyroidism, which is about 9.4% subclinical cases, and this is more common in females than males. In Ayurveda classics, the functions of metabolism depend on Agnimandhya (weak digestive fire), mainly Medo Dhatwagni Mandya (decreased metabolic factors located in fat tissues). The normal metabolism of tissues is achieved by the management of Agni. A case of hypothyroidism was treated with bio-cleansing therapy, which included Virechan Karma (therapeutic purgation) along with oral medication Kanchnaar Guggulu with Varunadi Kashaya on an empty stomach. The result was assessed on the basis of the level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and the improvement in the general condition of the patient. The level of TSH decreases from 64.4 µIU/mL to 2.65 µIU/mL during the duration of six months, with an overall subjective perception of feeling well. The present case study demonstrates that hypothyroidism can be managed by the Ayurveda treatment modality.
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